Why the Black Sea was called Black: legend and hypotheses
Everyone knows that there are 4 seas on the planet, in the names of which the colors are laid. This is Black, Yellow, Red, White. Today we will talk about Black - about this mysterious and unique reservoir with an interesting history.
The waters of the Black Sea are filled with numerous secrets. Many millennia ago, it was one with the Caspian, until the land separated them. The Caspian continued to remain stale, and Black repeatedly merged with the Mediterranean and acquired increasing salinity. The composition of the reservoir changed, certain species of flora and fauna disappeared, others, on the contrary, appeared.
Why was the Black Sea called Black? This question still worries many. The article will be devoted to the answer.
Brief historical background
Many centuries ago, the Black Sea was a component of the ocean called Tethys. After the formation of mountain ranges Tethys divided. In place of the Black Sea was Sarmatian Sea-lake.It was inhabited by freshwater representatives, whose remains are found to this day.
Later, as a result of the emerging connection with the ocean, the Meotian Sea was formed, which was a salt water. Other inhabitants settled in it, preferring a similar composition of water.
18-20 thousand years ago on the territory of the Black Sea Novoevksinsky lake was located, which later merged with the Mediterranean. Waves poured a powerful stream into the Black Sea, flooding the coast. A possible cause of this event, scientists call an earthquake. Sometimes the event is compared with the biblical flood.
As a result of the intake of the saline stream, freshwater inhabitants died and thus created a huge hydrogen sulfide resource that still exists today. Therefore, the reservoir is considered "the sea of the dead depths."
Undoubtedly, the history of the formation of this reservoir is interesting. But no less informative is why the Black Sea was called Black?
Different names in history
It is known that over the centuries the reservoir has changed many names. In the VI-V centuries BC. er He was called Pont Aksinsky. Also, the sea bore the names: Temarun, Scythian, Tauride, Surozh, Holy.
Surozhsky it was called because of the city of Sugdei, which stood on the site of modern Sudak. The Khazar Sea was called because of the people who lived on these shores.
At the beginning of our era, the sea was called Scythian, although the Scythians called it Tana, which translates as black.
Scientists put forward different hypotheses why the Black Sea was called the Black. Consider each of them.
Version of the scientist Strabo
The historian Strabo in the 1st century concluded that the name of the sea was given by the Greeks, stricken by storms, mists and wild barbarians living here. It seemed inhospitable to them, and they called it black (Pontos Akseynos).
Later, having lived on these shores, the Greeks changed their minds and began to call the sea "hospitable" - Pontos Eukseinos. But the original name is not erased from the memory of people. That is why the Black Sea is called Black.
When asked why the sea is called Black, the answer is that. Theory owes its appearance to the Indian people.
According to history, long before the arrival of the Greek colonists, in the 1st millennium BC, various Indian tribes lived on the Black Sea coast, calling the neighboring sea Temarun (“Black Sea”).
This was due to external comparison of Azov and Black. If you observe water from mountain elevations, Black does look darker. Hence, to call him so rightly.
Indian tribes changed the Scythians, they agreed with a similar description. They began to call the sea Ahshana, that is, the "black".
According to this version, the sea owes its name to the Turks. They sought to conquer its shores, but always met with resistance from local residents. Therefore, they called it Black, that is, unfriendly.
Sailors believe that the Black Sea is so named because of the strongest storms that paint the water in a dense black color.
However, such natural phenomena here occur not so often, and the shade of water changes not only in this reservoir, but also in any other.
Perhaps it is so named because of the color of the silt that is thrown on the coast during the storm. True, gray rather than black.
Hydrologists put forward their version when answering the question why the Black Sea was called the Black Sea. Any object of metal, lowered to an impressive depth, is removed to the top darkened.The culprit is hydrogen sulfide, which is rich in water below 200 meters.
This substance appears as a result of the life of bacteria that live in the deeper layers. Below 150-200 meters in the sea there are only microorganisms that have accumulated a huge number of hydrogen sulfide molecules.
There is also a legend about why the Black Sea was called Black. It lies in the fact that in the pond lies the sword of the hero. He was thrown there by the wizard Ali, who was dying.
The sea is now worried, wanting to throw the sword ashore. And the restless elements look dark. That is why the Black Sea is called Black. Legend so answers this question.
The hypothesis of the cardinal points
In Asian nations, the sides of the world are marked with color. North painted black. That is, the Black Sea is a reservoir located in this area. For Asians, this is true.
We practically answered the question why the Black Sea was called Black. But is the pool always colored the same?
The Black Sea has various shades. For example, in early spring the water at its shores is brown in color. This is due to the breeding of algae. Water begins to "bloom."
Some inhabitants of the water element have a mysterious radiance. For example, algae peridenei. In addition to them, predators live in the water, called nocturnal. They also shine thanks to a substance called "luciferin" - after the ruler of hell.
If you look at the reservoir, flying over it on the plane, it looks saturated-blue. And from space the sea is really very black.
Why is the pond water so dark? A large area of the sea depression is filled with hydrogen sulfide. In small quantities, this gas is colorless. But in the water its thickness is 1000-2000 meters, so the reservoir is so saturated blue.
Where did hydrogen sulfide gas come from?
In the Black Sea, at the level below 200 meters, only single-celled microorganisms live. Plants and animals in such conditions do not survive. This unique property is inherent only in this reservoir.
Many people ask: where does hydrogen sulfide come from in the deep sea? Let us dwell on this issue.
Oxygen enters the reservoir from the atmosphere, and also appears in the upper water layers as a result of photosynthesis. In order for oxygen to penetrate to a depth, water must be mixed. In the Black Sea, the water is almost not mixed.In it, the upper layer is formed by river currents, and it is fresh in composition. From the Marmara Sea penetrates the salt water that flows into the depths.
Thus, in the Black Sea there are two water layers with different levels of density and temperature. What does this lead to? The stratification of sea water does not allow the sea to mix up and penetrate oxygen to a considerable depth.
After the death of living organisms, their bodies are food for bacteria. When organic matter decomposes, oxygen is used. The deeper, the more decomposition, which means that more oxygen is absorbed. This means that the deeper, the less this substance. Below a depth of 100 meters, oxygen is not formed, but only absorbed. Penetrate the substance here, too, can not.
At levels below 200 meters, there is no oxygen gas at all. Only anaerobic microorganisms live here. They help the process of decomposition of all the remains. As a result of this reaction, hydrogen sulfide appears. This gas is poison for both animals and plants. It serves as a mitochondrial respiratory blocker. Sulfur is taken from amino acids of proteins, as well as from sulphates of sea water.
Some scientists say that hydrogen sulfide in the sea appeared due to pollution of the reservoir. The amount of gas is increasing, and the sea is on the verge of a catastrophe. This is partly true. The sea got a lot of water from agricultural fields in the 70s-80s of the 20th century. As a result, the growth of mud and phytoplankton increased in the reservoir. When rotting, they really secrete hydrogen sulfide. But this process did not introduce any radical changes to the composition of the sea. There is no risk of hydrogen sulphide explosion either, scientists say so.
Due to the abundance of hydrogen sulfide in the sea waters there is no deep-water fauna, as in other seas. Such low biodiversity is another feature of the Black Sea. There are no predatory deep fish that live in other salt water bodies.
So, we studied in detail why the Black Sea is called the Black Sea. Due to the abundance of hydrogen sulfide, the reservoir has a rich rich dark color. Apparently, therefore, it is called Black. However, the reader can accept for himself any answer to the question posed. All possible versions and hypotheses are presented in the article.