What is the exclusion zone? 30 km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant
What is the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant? This is a territory that has been closed for free access since 1986. The prohibited part includes the northern part of one of the districts of the Kiev region. Here once was located the power station, where the most terrible accident of the XX century occurred. More details about the catastrophe, its consequences and the rules for visiting the 30-kilometer zone are described in this article
It is impossible to talk about what the exclusion zone is without providing a chronology of the events of April 26, 1986. On this day in the fourth power unit there was an explosion that destroyed the reactor. The building collapsed. At the time of the explosion, 2 people died - employees of the power plant. The body of one of them was never found.
On that day, the employees had to stop the fourth power unit. This was required for the next scheduled repair. During such events, specialists usually conduct equipment testing.This time, it was necessary to check the “Turbine Rotor Run” mode. This was the fourth test of this type.
The experiment began at 01:23. At the first stage of testing, the behavior of power did not cause any concern. The emergency protection signal was recorded forty seconds after the start of the experiment. According to various testimonies, at that moment several powerful blows occurred.
Causes of the accident
There are two official versions. The state commission placed responsibility on the staff and management of the power plant. During the investigation, it was found that the accident was the result of gross violations of the rules of operation. In particular, employees should not have conducted an experiment at any cost — on that day, a change in the state of the reactor was observed. There is another version, voiced later, in the early nineties: the cause of the accident was the unsatisfactory state of the reactor design.
What is the exclusion zone? This is a territory with a special status. City or several settlements in which there are no conditions for normal residence. Evacuation of residents from Pripyat began only on April 28.That is, an assessment of the extent of pollution was done only after 2 days. However, even when it was made, Soviet television, unlike the Western media, broadcast programs devoted to the May Day demonstration.
Initially, residents of the ten-kilometer zone were evacuated. In the following days, the settlements located near Pripyat were deserted. Formed a zone of alienation. Chernobyl worldwide is now associated with the accident that claimed thousands of human lives. And among the dead as a result of the disaster, not only nuclear power plant employees and firefighters. People who received radiation died gradually, sometimes after a few days, sometimes after years. By the number of victims, the Chernobyl disaster is several times greater than the bombing of Hiroshima.
Exclusion Zone (Chernobyl)
So, the forbidden territory was determined shortly after the disaster. It is divided into 3 parts. The first is a special zone. Here is a dilapidated building power. The second territory is a 10-kilometer zone. The third is a 30 km.
The population was evacuated. Left workers who serve the power plant.Dosimetric monitoring was organized for them, decontamination points, a method of disinfection, were established. At the borders, employees move from one vehicle to another. This reduces the risk of transfer of radioactive substances.
In the nineties began a gradual resettlement of residents from the territories located outside the thirty-kilometer zone. The populated areas of the Poles'e district are empty. What is the Exclusion Zone? This is the territory where it is dangerous. It included settlements of Polessky District. Now the villages of Vilcha, Dibrova, Novy Mir have become a part of the exclusion zone. Radiation level at the entrance to the thirty-kilometer zone - 12 μR / hour. The degree of risk of exposure today, of course, is not as high as 30 years ago.
In the ghost town, the territory of which even in the photo is terrifying, in recent years, more and more thrill-seekers have been striving to get into. What attracts them to the "dead zone"?
Objects of the Chernobyl NPP Exclusion Zone
Within the contaminated area, work is being done to prevent the spread of radioactive substances beyond its borders and their entry into the water bodies of Ukraine. The center of the "dead zone" is Chernobyl.It, like Pripyat, is called a ghost town. On the territory there is the Administration, which is a department of the Ministry of Emergency Situations. Here is also the staff of the enterprise AZO. Who lives in the exclusion zone? The so-called samosely. This term originated in the eighties.
Residents of the "dead zone"
In 1986, a complete evacuation of the population was carried out. Ukrainian legislation today provides for limited residence in the exclusion zone. Despite this, some returned to their homes. In 1986, about 1,200 people lived here. For comparison: after the catastrophe about a hundred thousand inhabitants were evacuated. According to 2007 data, the population in the exclusion zone is just over three hundred people. Among them are dominated by people of old age. The average age of the settlers is 63 years.
How is the life of the inhabitants of these places forgotten by God? The main source of livelihood for them is the farm. Sometimes employees of the enterprises of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone help. For example, they repair buildings, conduct medical examinations. From time to time, residents of the “dead zone” receive humanitarian aid.One of the reasons for returning to their homes is poor-quality housing provided by the state. Often in one apartment settled several families from Pripyat and Chernobyl.
Chernobyl landscapes look absolutely dead. It seems that all living things perish here. Oddly enough, in the territory of the zone there are several objects of the natural reserve fund of the country. These deserted places are gradually turning into a reserve for rare animals. Here lives a bear, a badger, an otter, a muskrat, a deer, a lynx. Wolves, elks, roes, hares, foxes and wild boars are found in abundance. The body of a wild animal is able to cope with the increased background and chemical pollution, says one of the employees of the Center for Nuclear Safety.
The “dead zone” has long become a center of forbidden tourism. In the nineties, a set of measures was taken to eliminate the consequences of the accident. After that, the level of radiation decreased significantly not only in the adjacent territories, but also in the area of the power plant. Since then, the exclusion zone is very popular among tourists. Trips are both legal and illegal.
In the late eighties there were a lot of marauders. The first tourists appeared after the radiation level fell. In the mid-1990s, the state enterprise Chernobylinterinform was created. One of his tasks is to organize trips to the exclusion zone. Subsequently, many small firms emerged that also assisted in resolving such issues. Agencies that carried out legal activities cooperated with the enterprise Chernobylinterinform.
According to the UN report, since 2002, most places in the Chernobyl zone can be visited without particular harm to health. The annual number of tourists visiting the area of the former power station is growing. True, in 2011 access was again closed, although not for long. In 2013, Chernobylinterinform was liquidated. Today, the organization of travel deals with "Chernobyl Special Plant".
Rules of attendance
In the zone there is a check mode. All visitors must have documents with them. Self-driving is strictly prohibited, only with a guide. Photographing is allowed, but limited.On the territory it is not recommended to eat, smoke, touch plants and structures, sit on the ground. It is forbidden to export any items outside the zone.
Illegal entry is a criminal offense. However, stalkers do not stop anything. They still continue to penetrate the territory of the exclusion zone. Law enforcement agencies detain an average of 5-6 stalkers here every day, among which, as a rule, residents of nearby settlements.