What is the depth of soil freezing in the Moscow region?
Such a property of the soil as its freezing is an important factor that should be considered when building a new residential or industrial facility. Frosty swelling, speed and depth of soil freezing depend on many components:
- from the type of breed itself;
- natural moisture;
- the duration of the cold season in a certain area;
- negative temperatures;
- the presence of snow cover;
- heat insulation or ground coating.
With knowledge of this indicator, you can begin the construction of a solid and durable foundation that will last more than a dozen years. Otherwise, everything can end very badly - in a couple of years cracks will follow the foundation.
The depth of soil freezing in the Moscow region, as in any other region of the country, depends on its type. According to long-term observations, wet clay, like loam, freezes through 20% less than such types of soil as sandy loam, silty and fine sand.But large sands and coarse soils freeze through more sandy loam.
In various regions of the country, this figure is strikingly different. In some areas, the ground does not freeze through by half a meter, and in others the figure can exceed 6 meters. The Zabaykalsky Territory, the territories bordering Mongolia abounds in maximum values. The soil there is mainly sandy and coarse.
On how deep the soil freezes through, depends on its daily swelling. So, the freezing of the soil in Moscow leads to a 15-centimeter swelling.
Depends the number of frost heaving on the speed of soil freezing. The speed is influenced by indicators of negative air temperature.
Even the heaving effect is influenced by the soil filtration coefficient, which depends on the inflow of the amount of moisture to the place of freezing.
If the soil freezes at low speed, its structure becomes icy. It accumulates ice inclusions. When such a soil begins to melt, its physical properties deteriorate significantly. Often, hard or ductile rocks in spring, as a result of freezing and subsequent thawing, become fluid.
The depth of soil freezing in the Moscow region in some places is 1-1.2 meters. Under these conditions, a large amount of ice accumulates in them. When the temperature changes, when a cold winter gives way to a warm spring, a thaw occurs and the ground turns into a thick, viscous porridge.
The foundation of any house is the foundation. Its construction begins with the digging of trenches or pits. Their depth depends on many factors, including the region where the construction is carried out. So, before you start digging trenches, you should know what the depth of soil freezing (in the Moscow region, the Leningrad region - it does not matter). Foundation pits are always made below the level of soil freezing so that the groundwater and negative temperatures do not destroy it. The cost of these works depends on the actual depth of freezing, and on the type of soil on the site, and on the future structure. Experts also pay attention to the materials used in construction and their weight.
Foundation and frost heaving
When the engineers are planning to build a new construction object, they thoroughly study all the properties of the soil in the territory.If the process of frost heaving leads to a similar metamorphosis with the soil, the future foundation can be seriously damaged.
Even in the process of designing the foundation, it is important to take into account all the features of the soil, to apply various anti-abatement measures. It is also important knowledge of the basic properties of the breed.
Soil in the Moscow region
Neglect of the factor of soil freezing inevitably leads to the destruction of the foundation of the building. It should be borne in mind when constructing buildings.
What is the depth of soil freezing in the Moscow region? Hydrologists and geologists, studying the perennial changes in the soils of this region, came to the conclusion that the average values are one meter. However, this indicator is not universal. In different parts of the region, as in the city of Moscow itself, the numbers differ significantly.
The main factors affecting the level of soil freezing:
- snow depth during the cold season;
- groundwater and groundwater;
- average monthly and even daily average air temperature.
The type of soil also has a strong influence on this indicator. In places with predominantly sandy soils, the depth of freezing is much greater than that of clay.
Sandy and loamy soil types are located between clay and sand. Their freezing rates also have averaged numbers. The average annual temperature at the site also affects the depth of freezing. Therefore, in the north and south of the Moscow region the numbers will be different. In any case, with a larger regulatory depth of freezing and the foundation will be laid deeper.
Standards of soil freezing
People keep records of all indicators. Long-term observations are made, which are then displayed in reference books. Nevertheless, time plays its role, soils can change under the influence of external factors. The depth of soil freezing in the Moscow Region is also changing. SNiP shows that the limits of freezing are from 0.8 to 2.4 meters.
According to indicators:
- clay and loam freeze to 1.35 meters in depth;
- silty and fine sands - by 1.64 meters;
- medium and coarse sands - by 1.76 meters;
- coarse soils - 2 meters.
These figures vary by district, region and city. The regulatory depth of soil freezing in Moscow, according to experts, is 1.4 meters.
If the foundation for a one- or two-story house is to be installed on a semi-rock or rock, then its depth is chosen arbitrarily. When it comes to gravelly or coarse-grained soils, the foundation will be laid at least 0.5 meters. If we are talking about clay, dusty or sandy rocks, and the freezing depth does not exceed 1 meter, then the minimum laying of the foundation is 0.5 meters. And when it comes to 1.5-2.4 meters, the foundation pit for the house should be at least one meter.
Often, during construction, the specialists additionally install the protection of the foundation of the building against freezing. To this end, insulation is placed in the ground around the house.
The foundation is traditionally the most expensive part of the construction budget. But incorrect tabs will lead to rapid wear and the need for major repairs. Therefore, it is important to consider all the factors that may affect its durability: what are the climatic conditions, the terrain feature, the design of the future building, the type of soil and foundation, the depth of soil freezing. In the Moscow region, for example, the last factor plays an important role.In places with a value of 1 meter, the foundation is laid at least 1.2-1.4 meters.
When erecting the foundation, you also need to know whether the building will be used in the winter. In the cold season, people warm their house, which means that the foundation in this case will be laid 10-20% higher than the estimated depth.
Normative indicators differ from the actual depth of soil freezing in the Moscow region. This figure is influenced by a large number of factors. Time also affects the soil, its composition, physical and chemical properties. The depth of frost penetration changes with time. Therefore, construction should begin with the definition of all the parameters of the soil and the correct laying of the foundation. Then he will serve for many years.