What is a brain contusion?
Brain contusion is a severe traumatic injury characterized by a disorder of brain activity. The main symptom of a bruise is a loss of consciousness (for a couple of minutes or for several days, depending on how severe the injury is). It should be noted that the injured area may not necessarily be located in the place of application of force, but also on the opposite side. This happens when the brain strikes the skull itself with a counterweight.
What is a brain contusion?
With this injury, cell damage and rupture of brain vessels occur, softening of its tissues is observed, and to the brain itself, besides, decomposition products (bilirubin) from dead cells and blood particles act toxicly. They trigger inflammatory processes in the membranes, which in medicine are called meningeal syndrome.
Brain injury: symptoms
There are several types of bruises in severity:
- Mild degreeThis diagnosis corresponds to a shutdown of consciousness for several minutes. And then complaints of dizziness, nausea, headache, etc. There is retrograde amnesia, impaired pulse (increased or slowed down), increased pressure, insomnia. With this degree, it is difficult to distinguish between brain contusion and concussion according to symptoms. When injury is determined by non-coherent damage to the medulla in the form of local edema or point hemorrhages.
- Medium degree. It is characterized by loss of consciousness up to 6 hours, obvious retrograde amnesia, bouts of vomiting, mental disorders, meningeal manifestations, restrictions in the movement of the eyeballs, paresis, etc.
- Heavy degree. Prolonged deactivation, motor restlessness, heart rate failures, temperature rise up to 40 ° С. Neurological disorders are manifested by the possible development of epileptic seizures, floating eyeballs, nystagmus, impaired swallowing, and changes in muscle tone.
It should be noted that in pediatric practice, a slight contusion of the brain in a child is a fairly common case.Due to age features, children often hit their heads with their heads.
Diagnosis of brain injury
In order to eliminate the negative effects, the victim is carried out urgent medical examination. It is necessary to establish how the heart works, the respiratory system, and whether there is additional damage combined with a brain contusion. Neurological examination is required to determine the reaction of the pupils to a light stimulus, and, of course, a scan on a computer tomograph. This even reveals minor hemorrhages and hematomas in the brain, as well as the presence of a fracture of the skull bones.
Brain injury: treatment
Brain injury requires urgent hospitalization in the neurosurgical department. As a rule, therapeutic methods are used for treatment. Surgical intervention is necessary only in the presence of compression of the brain tissue or the detection of bone fragments in the cranial cavity. Therapy also involves the elimination of CSF hypertension, the use of drugs that improve blood circulation in the brain and metabolism, as well as measures to prevent cerebral edema.