What does the term "political regime" mean? The concept, essence, signs, types, forms of the state political regime
The essence of the state system, whichis established in the country at a particular period of history, when the authorities have specific goals, methods and means to realize their powers - that is what the term "political regime" means.
Special structure or ways of interaction?
In determining the political regimestate or political systems are not so important as the identification of ways of interaction between the state and society, the comparison of the rights and freedoms of each individual person, the procedure for the formation of all political institutions, methods and management style. What determines any political regime: the concept, its features, its kinds, these features are very diverse and can be modified.
Even the same type of government canto form essentially different political regimes. Also, similar or similar regimes easily arise in different policy structures. For example, the political regime of some constitutional monarchies (Belgium, Norway and others) is a republican power structure where democratic methods of government are applied. And, for example, Iran, which has a democratic policy structure in the organization of state power, is in fact an authoritarian state. After analyzing the situation inside the state, a definition is derived, which means the concept of a political regime.
One of the most important characteristics is the principle oforganization of all institutions of power, as well as pursued political goals and methods, and ways to achieve them. Slogans like: "victory at any cost" or "the end justifies the means" characterize the totalitarian state political regime. The concept and types of regimes are classified according to the analysis done.
The nature of the political regime consists oflevel of public political culture and historical traditions of the people. Any dictator or ruling elite usurps the power exactly as much as they are allowed to do this by civil society and the masses. In some countries, totalitarian regimes are established easily, naturally, such is their traditional political culture.
Researchers usually distinguish three main types from countless varieties of state management:democratic,totalitarianandauthoritarian. After examining them all and analyzing, you can make a definition of what the concept of "political regime" means.
The totalitarian state
Totalitarianism - the social system is prettyspecific, emerged as a social and political phenomenon in the twentieth century. The term comes from the Latin totalis - full, whole, all that means, applicable to the state system, total, that is, complete submission to the state of its citizens.
In political terminology introduced the concept oftotalitarianism in 1925 the Italian leader of social-nationalism B. Mussolini. However, the principles of totalitarianism originate even in the ideal state of Plato and in the works of the utopians T. Campanella, T. Mora and others.
The brightest and most attractive featuretotalitarianism was the demand for absolutely universal equality. Gracchus Babeuf called for the withdrawal of a person even the hope of becoming more influential, wealthy, knowledgeable than other fellow citizens. And this is a planned structure for the construction and development of the state, the transformation of society through communist ideas.
The idea of subordination to the state of all citizenspreached by J.-J. Rousseau, the French philosopher. The civic controllability of society was based on the fully understandable "fatherly" desire to bring its people to happiness, and for this it is necessary to transform this society with the help of equality, reason, social justice and freedom. The human personality seems to dissolve in the political body of the state, in its moral collective whole.
The state - the bearer of the general will of citizens,possesses indivisible sovereignty and absolute power. The disobedience and insubordination of individuals or groups of them causes the use of force, forcing to be free within the framework of a common will. The main features of totalitarianism:
- almost always problems with the legitimacy of power, since such regimes are established after riots, coups and other usurpations of power;
- The overwhelming majority of citizens do not have the opportunity to form and influence power, to control its actions;
- total bureaucratization of all social relations, including art and science, which also controls the state; absolute dependence of citizens on the state, internal terror;
- a system of legislative acts instead of a legal system, laws are not universal, power is not bound by the rules of law; most often the only political party in the state to which the power belongs;
- the personality cult of the leader;
- ideologization and politicization of all relations in society;
- secrecy from the world civilization.
Ideological currents subdivide totalitarianismto "right" and "left". The notion of the political regime of the state implies that the "left" is one that is based on the principles of Marxism-Leninism, while the "right" is subordinated to the ideas of National Socialism, that is, fascism. Any totalitarian regime has the characteristic features: a paramilitary organization of the whole society, unquestioning obedience to the higher leadership and a rigid vertical of power.
Origin of the term from Latin auctoritas - the influence of power. All the fullness of power is concentrated in one person - a dictator or a monarch, this is the meaning of the concept. The political regime is characterized by the highest centralization of power, almost all aspects of life are state-controlled, command and control methods, submission to the system are unconditional, the people are alienated from it, there is no real opposition, freedom of the press is limited.
The real division of power into judicial,executive and legislative is not, although purely formal structures like these may exist. The constitution under authoritarian regimes can be preserved, but of a declarative nature. The election system exists, but with an exponentially fictitious function, the results are predetermined in advance and do not affect the nature of the existing political regime.
This is a fairly common type of politicalsystem. Characteristics put the authoritarian regime in an intermediate position, when a totalitarian society begins to seek a democratic or vice versa, which means the concept of "political regime of the transition period."
Authoritarian regime is diverse, it is distinguishedgoals and methods for solving problems, as well as forms of organization of power - progressive, conservative or reactionary. The concept of the state political regime consists precisely in the fact that the essence of power is rarely settled for a long time, but there is no eternal state system.
The term originated from the Latin demos and kratos - people and power, democracy. With this form of social order, the peopleis consideredthe owner of state power, itscarrier. The concept and essence of the political regime of democracy is also multifaceted. Such a state system, where democracy is fully realized, does not exist, it is an ideal of the social order.
When democracy should be implementedthe following folk aspirations: freedom, justice, equality, observance of all human rights, participation of citizens in the governance of the state. Usually, states that position themselves as democratic counterpose themselves to authoritarian, totalitarian and other dictatorial regimes.
Signs of Democracy
In its purest form, democracy has not yet establishedone state, so often people choose a party with a double name: a Christian democrat, a social democrat, a liberal democrat, even a national democrat. So narrow socially directed social movements are trying to show commitment to democratic values. The political regime, signs, types of it is classified according to the main criteria derived from the analysis.
The conditions by which the democratic regime of the state is determined:
- the supreme power of the people is recognized legally;
- the main authorities are periodically selected;
- the suffrage is universal, and every citizen can take part in the governance of the state and in the formation of all representative bodies and institutions of power;
- Every citizen has the right not only to choose state managers, but also can be elected to any state elected office;
- decisions are made by the majority, and the minority obeys the majority;
- representative bodies supervise the activities of the executive power;
- elective bodies are accountable to their constituents.
Types of democracy
The main ways to realize democracy depend onhow the people can exercise the right to power, how the state political regime submits to it. The concept and species are subdivided as follows:
a)direct democracywhen voters directly acceptdecisions, and follow their implementation - this is characterized by early forms of democracy such as a clan community (ancient Athens, ancient Rome, Novgorod, Florence and other republic cities);
b)plebiscitary democracy, when the people make decisions only in specific cases - veche, maidan, referendum;
at)representative democracy, when the power is borne by the representatives of the people and governs the state, this is the most widespread and effective form of democracy, not deprived of its shortcomings (problems of choice).
The role of the state in the management mode
By the form of government and territorial structureit is impossible to recognize the meaning of the concept of "political regime". It is necessary to know the ways in which state authorities interact, to see the importance of class forces in the political sphere, to understand what role the state plays in the management of the population of its territories.
A broad approach makes the political regime,concept, its forms of social life and the entire state system of a given society as a whole. A narrow approach makes it an accessory only to the state and the state life, since it specifies many other forms of state structure (form of government, for example).
But what is the meaning of the term "politicalregime, "people who evaluate the phenomenon in only one aspect?" Both approaches are needed, both broad and narrow, otherwise one can not understand the political processes taking place in both spheres - political, political, and state. its public organizations, parties playing in public life is not the last role.
Characteristics of the form of management
To make a characterization of the publicpolitical system, you need to take into account a lot. The totality of ways and methods of leading the state in that narrow sense and includes the notion of the political regime of the state. This definition of the level of the guarantee of rights and freedoms, whether or not compliance with the constitutional (official) and actual legal norms. The nature of the relationship between government and the legal foundations of the state implies a "broad" view of the state political regime. Only so you can see the whole picture.
In this characteristic in the first placelegal or non-legal ways of governing the state are reflected. Equally important is the definition of methods of using power: prisons and other punitive institutions, democratic or dictatorial methods of influencing the civilian population, the presence or absence of ideological pressure, the violation or provision of individual freedom, protection of rights, economic freedom, attitude to property forms and so on.
Composition of the political system
The influence of the state extends to everything withoutExceptions are the constituent parts of this political system: political parties, labor collectives, and public organizations, all extrasystemic, seemingly, objects: the church, the momentary mass movements and so on. All components of this system are under significant influence of the system.
At the same time, there must be a rigid inversebecause the state by definition must feel the impact of the political and social environment. Thus, mutual influence contributes to the establishment of a particular political regime.
Form of government
So what does the term "political regime" mean? Briefly one of the formulations says - this is the class essence of power (K. Marx). Also, according to Marx, all political regimes can be divided into socialist / protosocialist and capitalist / protocapitalist. They are explicit and authoritarian, monocratic (dictatorial), autocratic and democratic, they can be a directory (with collective rule) and combined.
Most often forms and types of political regimessubdivide after an analysis of the relationship between government, society and the individual. Such a classification gives ideal, that is, theoretically, certain types of state political regimes. In real life, there is no political regime in its pure form.
However, the division into three main types(totalitarianism, democracy and authoritarianism) corresponds to the fact that, to varying degrees, approaching the theoretical norm, these species are most often present both in the history of mankind and in the modern world. The ability of political regimes to evolve somewhat complicates the analysis and classification, but the characteristic features will necessarily make themselves felt. For example, a political regime, the concept and characteristics of which corresponded to democratic principles, as a result of a coup, rebellion, coup may turn into any other.