What are dolls? Types of dolls, their description and purpose
The word "doll" has several interpretations. Argued that the most common is that which characterizes it as a special subject. The one that for centuries made the kids for fun, as well as for theatrical performances, interior decoration. Amazing similarities of a person or animal have been known to people for a long time. On the Eurasian continent there were finds of small anthropomorphic plastics by the age of 40 thousand years. That's what they are, the ancient "ancestors" of our cute doll! Types of dolls literally amaze with their diversity.
Guardians without a face
Beautiful dear specimens were in childhood far from all. And a few centuries ago, little girls in Russia (and not only) were oblong, and round in cross-section objects, vaguely resembling a swaddled child: they were wrapped in cloth, wooden blocks. In Greek, the "circle" - "Cyclose". There is an assumption that the usual "dolls" came from this word.Handmade or factory made, they entered the life of people once and for all.
The copies about which they say "piece goods" are considered very valuable. Original products, as well as those put on stream, can be porcelain, clay, wooden. But they necessarily contain features of uniqueness. Of these are collections, each of which is a kind of museum exhibition.
More and more people prefer exclusive gifts. They are attracted to handmade dolls, which invest not only skills, but also the soul of the master. Collectible dolls are special. They are not similar to the store, they always have a zest. The world of unusual images is studied not only by loyal fans of toys.
Subject interested solid scientists. The intricacies of the origin and development of Lyalka, its appearance, and most importantly, its purpose, have been comprehended for centuries by ethnographers and culturologists, historians and art historians, educators and collectors. This once again confirms the importance of the figures, created in the image and likeness of a person or beast.
No wonder that people for thousands of years kept and passed from generation to generation the secrets of the mastery of making “fun”! Modern man,thinking about what dolls are like, sometimes does not recall that at the dawn of mankind sacral meaning was put into the subject. What is worth only mystical impersonality! In some nations it was forbidden to draw or embroider doll eyes, mouth, ears. "Deaf-blind" beauties steadfastly kept the secrets of the genus.
It was considered dangerous if the motanki (Old Slavic amulet) has eyes: through them both the good and the evil spirit that can harm a child can move into it. Shamans, sorcerers, too, did not shun dolls. Types of dolls for special ceremonies existed among many nations. Today, too, there are people who believe in mysticism. But more and more often the toy is used for entertainment, decoration, for educational purposes.
Many at least once in their lives, have heard a very active or flexible child (adult) saying: “You are spinning like on hinges!” Remotely copying the structure of the joint, a person learned to make figures that you can raise and lower pens, bend the knees, imitate head turn. Some copies even moved fingers!
Hinged dolls seem to have absorbed all the craftsmanship and elegance of the world.Many people think that their homeland is China, Japan, Korea. In fact, the hinge dolls were known to the inhabitants of ancient Greece, Egypt, Rome. Wooden or clay "dynamic creatures" were collected together using metal pegs using a rope. The first rotational kinematic pairs (hinges) were used as early as the twentieth - twenty-third centuries BC, during the twelfth dynasty of the Egyptian pharaohs.
When realism is resting
Hinged dolls have another name - BC (ball-jointed doll). Patricians (when the patrimonial aristocracy of the land was allocated to this estate) admired the silver larva (a peculiar name) at the end of the feast. Graceful santony and krippi - real works of art, ranging in height from twenty to sixty centimeters, was popular in France and Italy in the Middle Ages.
Until the nineteenth century, the "mobile creatures" were wooden. Then they had an elegant porcelain head, the product became even more beautiful. By the end of this century, articulated toys appeared in Western Europe, the design features of which are close to modern ones.They were made from a mixture of sawdust, cellulose, glue.
There were expressive pupsiki 15 centimeters, and no less detailed specimens with a height of one meter. In the years 1930-1960 many masterly dolls were made by the master from Germany, Hans Bellmer. These are definitely not toys. What is surreal two pairs of legs, shod in elegant shoes. They seem to grow out of each other: one - the bottom, the other - like raised hands. Here are some dolls! And this is not the most unusual view of the artist.
Modern play and collectible dolls are notable for their sophisticated and at the same time elegant design. The painting is made with special durable paint. Natural materials are used for the wig, for example, goat tress. One after another implanted cilia. Clothes are sewn by hand. If required by the image, the tissue undergo the process of aging.
It is worth saying a few words about the complexity of the design of the doll. Types of porcelain dolls with a height of fifteen centimeters can be equipped with ten or more hinged joints. Sometimes several wigs are attached to the set. Popular portrait samples, reminiscent of the owner of his beloved singer, actress.There are fantastic characters of the same beauty and subtlety of execution.
Wooden toys of Russia
The heyday of the modern production of the hinged doll falls to the 1990s. The Japanese company Volks has released a small collectible model Doll and Figure. The “figure” was a success, and a model of 57 cm in height appeared (Akihiro Enku, Super Dolfie, 2001). Almost immediately, competing manufacturing firms appeared in Korea and China. Dolls differ in height, proportions. But more often buyers are attracted by the face. Having fallen in love with a look, a smile, they reduce the degree of attention to other details.
In 2007, Goodreau Doll from the USA appeared. In the XXI century, the beauties are unusually "revived." It seems there is not a single human movement that they could not repeat. However, in the memories of people from different countries about childhood (his own, especially grandmothers and great-grandmothers) appear uncomplicated wooden dolls.
In Russia, the assortment is especially wide: matryoshka, Bogorodskaya, Sergiyev-Posad, Gorodets toys - you can't count the total! The Eastern Slavs had toys from the branches of a tree, slightly trimmed with a knife, as early as the 9th century: a bird, an animal, a flyworm. Ancient gizmos are not preserved, but some descriptions have come down to the present times.
Thanks to documentary evidence, it is possible to imagine (if desired - to repeat) what some members of the large “bitch” family looked like. Wooden dolls and other toys made the three regions in Russia particularly famous. The first covers the Arkhangelsk and Vologda provinces (characteristic types: ancient northern idols, horses, a doll-woman, etc.).
The second - Nizhny Novgorod province. She is famous masters of carving, "lokkarstvom", but not only. Is it possible to forget the Gorodetsky lady, the Semenov matryoshka, the Feodoseyevsky yellow drawn horses? The most famous manufacturer of Russian wooden toys Sergiev Posad with the surroundings.
And about the types of dolls. In 27 kilometers from the city, in the village of Bogorodskoye, from under the skillful hands of the masters there are figures of magnificent women - these are “lady-fools” (the painting is not very colorful). Hussars, priests, monks, hardworking men, horses, ready to plow, bear - in Bogorodskoy toy abundance of images that are combined by one or another storyline. Sometimes toys come to life (move).
Sweep the yard, iron man!
In the XVI century there were a clock with a spring drive.Watchmaker and mechanic Pierre Jaquet Droz created minute and clock counters with singing birds and playing music. He also became interested in the manufacture of automatons. Amazing toys amazingly reminded people. Three mechanical dolls distinguished themselves by a particularly high degree of mastery: “The Scribe”, “The Draftsman”, and “The Musician”.
Especially impressive is the boy clerk: an automaton dips his pen in the inkwell, leads his eyes after the running letters. Three lines are born before the eyes (the text can be programmed). This is the achievement of human thought more than 250 years ago! Amazing. There is a legend telling that a similar miracle was at the court of Ivan the Terrible: an iron peasant gave a caftan to the king and a chalk yard.
There are even more distant memories. They lead "into the darkness of the mythological ages." According to the historiographer of the theater Charles Manyan (France), mechanical dolls originate from there. Homer also talked about the volcanic living tripods, which Hephaestus forged. They served the gods in the meeting.
Get out, miserable!
With the help of a set of mechanisms forcing the scenery to move, in the ancient Greek theater of Dionysus (Athens) the gods descended from the top to the ground. Machinery helped the priests to terrorize people: the characters moved their hands, their heads.Since then, fake unnatural life is called "dedalisticheskoy".
Deception was not only creating the illusion of life. Inventors tried to convince people that mechanical dolls come to life without the help of mechanisms, by themselves. The historian Manyan also wrote about the fact that there were automata working by chemical reactions (expansion of heated mercury).
Mercury in small Chinese dolls, flowing, changed the center of gravity, and the characters tumbled. According to the description of the Roman poet Publius Ovid Nazon, the statue of King Servius Tullius during the solemn sacrifice in the temple angrily closed her eyes with her hand so as not to see the criminal daughter. Citizens of all classes were amazed. And how is the puppet doll set in motion?
Gone to the people
When they want to emphasize that someone is completely subject to another's will, they say: “Puppet!” A little about the type of “obedient dolls”. In the distant past, religious rituals (processions, ceremonies) were used to set statues of gods with the help of threads or a metal rod. Priests wore statues in the crowd and periodically imperceptibly tugged at the rope, slowly turning their highest head.At the same time, the facial expression was also changed - complacent for the angry and vice versa.
The puppet doll appeared when craftsmen began making diminished figures with the ability to change poses, like a man. The mechanism was complicated: the characters began to sit down, stand up, dance, make gestures characteristic of people. There was no feast or feast without inanimate artists.
Soon they became an integral part of any holiday, "settled" in every home. Strictly speaking, heavy, metal, wood and ivory mechanical dolls, as mentioned above - a kind of big puppets. The little ones were made from the same materials, but they were easier, smoothly moving into the category of games. The system of rings, hooks and threads gave every owner the opportunity to feel like a puppeteer.
Parents are very happy with the simple “invention of the century”: finger puppets develop fine motor skills and coordination of movements in children. Figures of men and animals are worn on each finger of the hand, and a wide scope for fantasy on a magical theme opens up! Moms crochet a fairy tale, sew from shreds, mold from plastic.
As a result, cute bright heroes are born. Children (and parents) with pleasure reincarnate fingers - big, index, middle, nameless, little fingers. One moment - and chanterelles, balls, bunny, grandmother, grandfathers in the collection. Finger dolls are so miniature that any piece of fabric, knitwear, the most modest hank of thread will be enough for one creation.
A detail from an old glove can become the body of a butterfly, if tiny paper wings are attached to it or glued to it. Imagine, and everything will work out! Another kind of "fun", which are not inferior to the above-mentioned "tiny hawroshekkam" - doll gloves for puppet theater (home or regular). Babies love when the hand of mom (dad) turns into a clown, funny boy, owl! A nimble heroes of the children's scene? Delight!
Very interesting animated dolls (cartoon). They represent the symbiosis of a hinged (wire) "girlfriend" and sculpture. A large role in creating images plays a suit. Often a character is the result of the work of three narrow specialists at once. The production designer and the director make a sketch, discuss the range of movements, facial expressions, other details.
First, plasticine sculpture is made (at this stage, the principle of mechanization must be clearly understood). Then comes the turn of manufacturing the inverse form. A plastic base is cast on it. The head is mechanized and painted. Clothing should not hamper movement. Sewing thin wires into the skirt, hair allows imitating their swaying in the wind. Animated doll animates.
And what about cute and unpretentious clay dolls? Finds made in our country, dated the second century before Christ (hatchets, rattles). In the X-XIII centuries, these are already birds, horses, human figures (excavations near Ryazan, Moscow). In the 19th century, there was a flourishing craft, the development of which is closely related to pottery.
Craftsmen worked with local clay. A specific and at the same time democratic toy in primitive beliefs was considered a totem, a talisman. In the Middle Ages (as now) it was widely used to decorate household premises and courtyard spaces.
Known Kargapolskaya toy (Arkhangelsk region). And in the old days, figures of horses, people were molded, rather, for pleasure, than for earnings.Now there is a process of deviation from archaism. But there are enthusiasts who are trying to preserve the best traditions of the ancient craft.
Modern polymer base allows you to make elegant beautiful dolls. Types of dolls that can be sculpted, this inexpensive plastic material does not limit. It is important to calculate the correct proportions of the body. For those who intend to independently manufacture their first doll, some tips: height - seven doll heads. For a tall and slim figure, you can increase the height by 2 heads. For the stocky, small "person" enough six. The palm is equal to the width of the face. Foot - one and a half palm pupae.