What are batteries for? Battery use
Batteries are devices that can store energy in chemical form and then use it as electricity. They work because different metals in an acidic solution are able to generate electricity. In this article we will consider the use of batteries.
What it is?
The word itself is of Latin origin and means to collect. In electrical engineering, this term refers to a device capable of storing energy. This is the main use of batteries - the accumulation and subsequent use of electrical energy. There are several main characteristics of such a device - self-discharge current, capacitance and internal resistance.
Capacity is the amount of energy that a fully charged battery has. This is the most important parameter, the more it is - the longer the device will be able to work without recharging.Capacity is measured in milliampere-hours. During operation, this parameter is usually reduced depending on some factors: the period and conditions of use, quality of service, and the like.
This is another extremely important parameter, which is measured in millioms and depends on the age, operating conditions, capacity and electrochemical composition of the drive. If this characteristic becomes higher than the required standard, then the device operation time is significantly reduced, it discharges faster and functions less efficiently. The use of batteries in everyday life requires careful and timely monitoring of this parameter.
This term refers to the gradual loss of stored energy after charging. This phenomenon is possible for all types of drives. This process also affects the service life of the device, characterized by discharge and charging cycles, which it can withstand without degrading the basic parameters.
In such devices, lead and its dioxide serve as reagents, and sulfuric acid is the electrolyte. Automobile batteries are used for the starter - they are used to start the internal combustion engine and electrical support of the machine.As a disadvantage can be called poor charge safety. They are also used at telephone exchanges, in telecommunication systems, as emergency power sources, for electric vehicles, lifts, electric cars, emergency lighting.
Nickel cadmium storage
In this type of device under consideration, cadmium and nickel hydroxide serve as reagents. The use of nickel-cadmium batteries is quite wide: they include powering of electric locomotives, communication facilities, starting diesel engines, and starting aircraft engines, and charging electronic devices. There are several main types of such devices: untight (with sintered or lamella electrodes) and sealed. The advantages include high resource to failure and greater resistance to emergency and post-accident conditions.
Nickel iron storage
This device is used instead of cadmium iron. The use of batteries of this type is possible on electric vehicles, electric locomotives and lifts, as they have a high stock of mechanical strength and a long service life. The disadvantages include increased demands on the ambient temperature.
Lithium ion drive
In this device, carbonaceous materials into which lithium ions are embedded are used as the negative electrode. The positive electrode active material is cobalt oxide. The electrolyte is a solution of lithium salt. The device has a high specific energy, an excellent resource and the ability to operate at low temperatures.