The rate and ratio of LH and FSH. Luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Sex hormones are produced by the adrenal cortex, placental cells. Female hormones affect many body systems and individual organs. Hormonal level determines the behavior of a woman, her emotions, mental activity, appearance. For the production of female sex hormones, such substances as luteinizing and follicle-stimulating (LH and FSH) hormones are responsible.
What is follicle-stimulating hormone
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a hormone produced by the endocrine gland, the pituitary gland. It is this hormone that affects the formation of female and male germ cells when follicles mature in the ovaries of a woman and spermatogenesis in a man's testicles.
Influencing the ovaries,FSH contributes to the beginning of the formation of the female germ cell, by the middle of the cycle the germ cell becomes maximally developed, emerges from the bursting follicle and is ready for fertilization. During this period of time, pregnancy is possible, and the level of FSH is maximum. Then gradually the level of this hormone decreases, and the level of another pituitary hormone increases.
The pituitary gland is an oval gland of internal secretion, located at the base of the skull, it produces pituitary hormones that affect the regulation and function of the endocrine glands of the body.
The concept of "luteinizing hormone"
The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland also produces LH hormone. This luteinizing hormone stimulates the proper development of sex organs secreting hormones. The normal ratio of LH and FSH in the female body regulates the synthesis of the hormone estradiol. As the amount of this hormone increases in the blood, the level of FSH decreases.
Depending on the day of the menstrual cycle, the ratio of LH and FSH hormones may vary. Thus, the level of LH throughout almost the entire cycle is low. Only the middle of the cycle is characterized by a surge in the level of LH ten times, after which the ovulation period begins.Under the influence of a high content of LH, a yellow body begins to form in the ovary, and progesterone is produced, which allows the embryo to infiltrate the uterine wall. The highest indicators of FSH are also noted in the middle of the cycle.
LH in the male body regulates the production of testosterone, which is produced by Leydig cells located in the testes. When a certain amount of the male hormone is reached in the blood, the production of the male sex cells will begin.
Research to determine LH and FSH
The menstrual cycle is divided into the follicular phase (from the beginning of the cycle and up to 12-14 days), the ovulatory (maybe 12-14th day) and luteal (all other days of the cycle).
The secretion of luteinizing hormone is closely related to the follicle-stimulating hormone produced by the pituitary gland, to testosterone, progesterone and other sex hormones, so it is important to monitor the level of all these hormones in order to detect various pathologies.
To identify the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and its amount, blood serum is analyzed, which is given on an empty stomach. However, it should be borne in mind that such analyzes are taken only on certain days of the cycle.So, in the first phase, blood is donated at 7-9 days, and in the third phase - at 22-24 days.
To determine how much LH is produced in the body, blood tests are performed. The test results will differ if you take blood at different times of the cycle and in different age categories. Low levels of LH are observed in eight-year-olds, compared with birth rates. Starting at age eight, LH levels will rise to puberty. With the onset of pregnancy there is a low level of this hormone.
The ratio of FSH and LH, norm
To present a picture of the health status of the female reproductive system, you need to know the normal ratio of LH and FSH. To begin with, the levels of these two hormones are determined separately.
Normally, the value of FSH in phases in IU / l for women: follicular phase 3.5–13.0; ovulatory phase 4.7–22.0; luteal phase 1.7–7.7. For men, the rate is 1.5–12.0.
Normally, the value of LH in phases in IU / l for women: follicular phase 2-14; ovulatory phase 24-150; luteal phase 2-17. For men, the rate of luteinizing hormone is from 0.5 to 10, and this level of hormone is constant.
For different females, the ratio of LH and FSH will be different. So, for girls who have not yet had menstruation, this figure will be equal to 1.After a year from the first menstruation, the ratio of LH and FSH will vary from 1 to 1.5. In women with menstruation for more than two years and before the onset of menopause, a higher ratio of FSH and LH, the norm varies between 1.5 and 2.
High levels of LH and FSH hormones
An elevated ratio of LH and FSH, which lasts more than 2, may indicate in women that there are cysts in the ovaries and manifest in people with androgenic resistance syndrome. This overestimated ratio of hormones is observed in women during ovulation.
A significant increase in LH and FSH levels indicates primary ovarian failure. But the inflated hormones of LH and FSH - the norm for the period of the onset of menopause.
With an increase in the concentration of FSH, uterine bleeding is observed that does not occur during menstruation, there may also be no monthly discharge.
High levels of FSH in women with no menstruation is a pretext for conducting karyotypic studies of genes. This lack of menstrual flow can be considered an early menopause.
Low levels of LH and FSH hormones
Since the pituitary gland emits hormones LH and FSH in portions, their rate in the blood under conditions lowering their production is determined by taking blood every half hour three times.
When tests show low levels of LH and FSH hormones, this may include such signs as a small amount of discharge on critical days, anovulation, inability to get pregnant, underdevelopment of the breast, external and internal genital organs, and no libido.
Low levels of FSH in men indicate that the production of male germ cells is reduced in the body, such men are infertile, have no libido, and the amount of hair throughout the body decreases.
As evidenced by the deviation of LH and FSH hormones
Limited production of LH indicates violations in the luteal phase. This means that progesterone is produced in insufficient quantities, the uterus is not able to prepare to hold the embryo on its wall. As a result, pregnancy may not occur. It is considered normal to reduce this hormone during childbirth.
But a high level of LH speaks of polycystic in the ovaries, their exhaustion.
If the level of follicle-stimulating hormone is elevated, this indicates abnormalities in the reproductive system or glands responsible for the functioning of the reproductive organs, menstrual disorders, and bleeding.
Factors affecting the rate of pituitary hormones
Low levels of LH and FSH in the male and female body can be caused by dysfunction of the pituitary gland, in particular its anterior lobe, or impaired hypothalamic function. The reason for the low content of FSH may be overweight in women, since sex hormones are produced in adipose tissue. Obesity can also occur as a consequence of a violation of the ratio of pituitary hormones.
High levels of LH and FSH occur when pituitary tumors are detected, which can be detected on brain tomography. The tumor will affect the function of the pituitary gland to regulate other endocrine glands. The neuroendocrine mechanism for regulating the activity of the organism will be disrupted.
The impact of emotional state, all kinds of stress, hard diets, exhausting sports activities, of course, will affect the increase in the level of FSH.
Genetic abnormalities associated with the presence of an extra X chromosome in boys, or the complete or partial absence of one of the two sex chromosomes in the female body also affect the ratio of pituitary hormones.