The principle of operation of a two-stroke internal combustion engine
The internal combustion engine (abbreviated to ICE)was invented in the middle of the 19th century. Since then, a lot has changed. At present, it is used in absolutely all serial cars. This mechanism has been improved more than once, but the principle of the internal combustion engine as such has remained the same.
There are four-stroke and two-stroke engines. In the latter, all cycles (direct injection of fuel, expulsion of exhaust gases and purging) occur in two cycles per one working revolution of the crankshaft. In the structure of such mechanisms, there are no additional valves. With their function, the piston directly manages, as during the movement it alternately closes the intake, outlet and purging holes. Therefore, the principle of operation of a two-stroke internal combustion engine is quite simple.
In theory, the power of a two-stroke product is twofoldmore than in the four-stroke (due to the increased number of working strokes). However, in practice this is not quite so. The principle of the internal combustion engine is that due to the incomplete stroke of the piston, less intensive release of the residual exhaust gas and some other factors at the output, an increase in power is not more than 60 to 70 percent.
The engine operates in two cycles. During the first stroke, the piston swiftly moves from the bottom to the top position. In the course of its movement, it blocks the exhaust and purging windows. At this point, a strong compression of the fuel liquid that has been received occurs. After that, the second bar begins. The principle of the internal combustion engine is that the compressed fuel ignites from the candle. Under the influence of the force of expansion of the gases, the piston moves toward the lower "dead" position. In this case, useful work is being done. As soon as the piston descends so as to open the outlet, the exhaust gases are sent to the atmosphere. The pressure in the cylinder is rapidly decreasing, and the piston is still falling down inertia. In the lower position, a blowing hole is opened and a new portion of the fresh fuel mixture is supplied from the so-called crank chamber, in which it is under pressure.
A two-stroke powerplant is enoughconvenient mechanism. However, considering the principle of the internal combustion engine, it has its advantages. In comparison with four-stroke it is less cumbersome, much easier to manufacture, does not require volumetric lubrication systems and gas distribution. This all significantly reduces the cost of the sample and the cost of its maintenance.
This type of engine has enough weightdisadvantages that make it not the most effective unit. Such devices are quite noisy and work much louder than four-stroke analogs. Four-stroke products, however, operate with less vibration, since the principle of operation of the two-stroke internal combustion engine causes a greater number of oscillatory movements. The fuel consumption in terms of one horsepower is 300 grams. For comparison - four-stroke models need only 200 grams of fuel.