The most famous falling towers: description and history
The reliability of the foundation of any building always depends on the stability of the soil. This parameter, exceeding the normal values, can lead to a tilt of the structure and further destruction. About this fact knew even the ancient architects. Due to this property of the soil, falling towers, having such an unusual construction due to errors in their design, once appeared. The most famous of these buildings is the tower, located in the Italian city of Pisa. But this list does not end there — there are quite a few buildings in the world with a deviation from the axis of symmetry.
The falling towers of the world
Such buildings are in the UK, Italy, Germany, China, the Netherlands and Russia. Today you can learn about the history of their creation and see the photos. So let's get started.
Leaning Tower of Pisa
This part of the Cathedral of Saint Mary was built in the ancient Italian city of Pisa. Work on its creation began in 1173 and ended after almost two centuries.Authorship of the most famous among the inclined towers of the world belongs to the architect Bonnano Pisano. It is completely built of white marble, its height is 56 meters, the angle of inclination reaches 4.8 degrees.
Initially it was thought that the author of the project embodied his unusual idea in stone. But later it turned out that such a strangeness of the tower is an error associated with the poor compatibility of its structure and soft soil.
Nevertheless, for many centuries, this bell tower is a symbol of Pisa. And lovers of various legends composed a new one in her honor: architect Pisano built an elegant and perfectly straight tower, which conquered with its royalty and its whiteness. But at the end of the work, the mean Catholic priests did not want to pay for the master's efforts. After that, Pisano turned to the tower and said: “Follow me!”. To the amazement of eyewitnesses, the bell tower took a step and leaned over.
Syuyumbike Leaning Tower
It is the most famous building of the Kazan Kremlin. To admire the oriental beauty, a large number of tourists from all over the world come to the capital of Tatarstan every year. Its spire deviates from the vertical by 1.98 meters.Externally, it is a cone-shaped building consisting of seven tiers. For its construction was used red brick, and the structure is crowned with a green spire decorated with a gilded crescent - a symbol of the Muslim faith.
There are different versions of the creation of this tower. Two of them are associated with the name of the ruler of the Kazan Khanate, Syuyumbike. According to the first legend, the tsarina ordered to build her after the death of her beloved spouse Safa-Gereya.
Another story intertwines the name of the beauty and the Russian autocrat Ivan the Terrible, who in 1552, after the capture of Kazan, wished to marry a proud sovereign. It took seven days to build this symbol of power and love. But the cruel Tsar failed to win the heart of Syuyumbike - she fell down from the last tier of the tower and died.
Modern researchers refute these legends and say that the leaning tower was created at the beginning of the XVIII century under more prosaic circumstances not connected with the name of the Tatar queen. Preserved historical documents confirming the marriage of Syuyumbike with Khan Shah-Ali.
Capital Gate, Abu Dhabi
Almost 60 years ago, the capital of the United Arab Emirates could not boast of any sights. But after the richest oil deposits were discovered here in 1958, the country began to develop rapidly. Now Abu Dhabi is thriving and can afford the construction of the most unusual complexes.
In 2011, the falling towers found an Arab sister: in the capital of the United Arab Emirates, the most unusual high-rise building was commissioned, named Capital Gate, which translated from English means “the capital's gate”. He was immediately listed in the Guinness Book of Records as the most inclined building on the planet. The angle of its roll is five times the rate of the Tower of Pisa and is 18 degrees. Abu Dhabi National Exhibitions Company has built this architectural wonder of modernity in four years.
The Leaning Tower in Abu Dhabi is 160 meters tall and consists of 33 floors, most of which occupy a five-star hotel and office space. The amount spent on its construction is impressive: over 2 billion dollars.
Tiger Hill Pagoda, China
The omnipresent Celestial Empire is also included in the list of countries that have their falling towers.In full accordance with the local color, the most famous tilted building is a pagoda named Tiger Hill, or Huciu. She is in the city of Suzhou, in the province of Jiangsu. The history of its creation dates back over a thousand years, and it is two centuries older than the more famous Leaning Tower of Pisa. The height of the seven-story construction, weighing almost 7 thousand tons, is 47 meters.
During its existence, it experienced several fires, and in 1644 Tiger Hill began to gradually acquire its special quality: for the V century, the Chinese pagoda rushes down, and by the beginning of the XXI century, its slope exceeded 2 meters.
Italian Asinelli and Garisenta
Cities that have one falling tower invariably attract the attention of researchers and tourists. What then to talk about Bologna, where there are two of them?
Asinelli and Garisenda, or simply "twins", were built in the XII century. The height of the first one reaches almost 100 meters, and the second one is twice lower, but it is precisely this one that has a stronger slope from the vertical. For the city of that time, these facilities were as important as the towers of the World Trade Center in New York. The main goals with which medieval skyscrapers were built were defensive and offensive.
Both of the main sights of Bologna are located in the very center of the city, and almost all the main streets lead to them. Today, Azinelli is one of the best viewing platforms, from the roof of which the quarters of the capital of the Emilia-Romagna region are clearly visible.
In addition to the watchman Syuyumbike, in Russia there is another world-famous inclined structure. Where is the leaning tower? At a short distance from Nizhny Tagil, by the Neiva River, the city of Nevyansk stands modestly. The glorious history of the Demidovs began with him, and they also became the customers of the construction of the inclined tower. The height of the Russian sister Torre pendente di Pisa is 57.5 meters. It is noteworthy that the chimes located on the tower reproduce about 20 melodies and have been working without repair for almost 300 years. They were assembled by the English watchmaker Richard Phelps.
Demidovs were the richest family in Russia, and where there is a lot of money, there are always a lot of different myths.
Not spared such legends and the history of the slope of the Nevyansk tower. About the Ural industrialists went stubborn rumor that they were engaged in the manufacture of fake coins.When once the auditors arrived in the city, the owner, allegedly noticing traces, flooded money-making machines in the basements, which caused the building to roll. But historians have refuted this fiction: the slope was originally conceived by the architect.
Tower in Bad Frankenhausen, Germany
Located on top of a hill, the 25-meter-high Gothic Upper Church, built in 1382, is constantly under the destructive influence of a powerful stream of air. According to the researchers, strong winds are the main reason why the tower of Bad Frankenhausen gets 6 centimeters closer to the ground. Mineral waters under the foundation also contribute to the final fall. Engineers have calculated that the next ten years may cause irreparable damage to it.