The first device for recording and playing sound. Edison invention phonograph
People from ancient times were interested in various musical instruments and methods of sound reproduction. Attempts at mechanical repetition of music were made in the 9th century. Only from the second half of the XIX century, the mechanical acoustic method of sound recording became widespread. The first device for recording and reproducing sound, invented by Thomas Edisson, was registered in 1877, for which a patent was granted to its author.
The first mechanical devices for sound reproduction
The earliest devices with the help of which people could hear a certain melody, of course, can hardly be called the first instruments for recording and playing sound. They can be called mechanical instruments, with which they extracted sounds and even simple melodies with the help of hands.
The main components in them were replaceable cylinders, on which different protruding cams were applied. They settled down in a certain order and worked on the plates, which, when rotated, produced sounds of different heights, of which a simple melody consisted. By this principle were organized the street-organs, music boxes and boxes, watches.
The reproduction of simple melodies was of very poor quality. It is hard to say whether the application of cams to a roller in a certain order can be called sound recording. But probably it was so. The perforated paper tape was already used in the mechanical piano. In modern terms, she was the carrier of the melody sound.
The history of sound recording has preserved many different devices for preserving (recording) sounds on various carriers: wooden rollers, paper tapes, metal cylinders and discs, on which small grooves were applied, and so on. The recording was made by hand, with the help of auxiliary tools. The carriers were inserted into special devices that made it possible to reproduce sound during movement.
The mechanical method of sound recording is replaced by acoustic-mechanical using a horn. In this method, oscillations of sound that acted on the thin membrane were used. She, depending on the force of pressure on her sound, produced certain movements. A cutter was rigidly attached to the membrane, leaving a mark on the carrier at various depths.
Devices that conducted sound recording to a carrier with a microphone, were a revolutionary leap over the first device for recording and playing sound. Getting into the microphone, the sound vibrations were converted into electric current, after which they were amplified and transmitted to the recorder - transducer of electromechanical action. He worked with the help of an electromagnetic field, converting variable currents into mechanical oscillatory movements of the tool. Depending on the force of impact on the cutter, he left on the carrier groove, which had a different depth.
What is phonoautograf
This recording device, invented by the French publisher and librarian Edouard-Leon Scott de Martinville.As we can see, this is not a mechanical scientist or inventor. This is a simple publisher and bookseller. He did not even think of inventing something, just the appearance of a camera created according to the principle of the human eye, prompted him to study the principle of the action of the human ear and, if possible, copy it.
This explains the appearance of the membrane to which the needle was attached. The sound, getting on the membrane with the help of a metal cone, made it oscillate and leave a trace of different depths on the paper attached to the glass cylinder and covered with soot. Hence the name - phonoautograf, since the sound reproduction was not discussed. One could only see the mark on the paper covered with soot. Nevertheless, it was a discovery for which in 1857 he was granted a patent.
His sound autographs Martenville recorded at different speeds. The autographs processed in 2008 on a computer made it possible to reproduce three recordings and determine that it was a song and two passages from literary works that the author himself read. According to the principle of phonoavtograf phonograph and gramophone were created.
The first device for recording and reproducing sound - the phonograph was made by an American entrepreneur and inventor Thomas Edison 20 years after the discovery of Martenville. The sound was not only recorded with a phonograph, but could also be heard. The principle of sound recording was similar to the phonoautograph.
To achieve sound recording, the inventor went from the opposite. The sound track was located on a spiral fastened on a replaceable cylinder. As it rotated along the path, the needle moved on a thin membrane, causing its various vibrations, which made sounds of different frequencies. They fell into a cylindrical cone, and in an amplified form they could be heard. All ingenious is simple.
The invention of the phonograph by Edison caused a real boom. The inventor created a record company, which brought good dividends to it. Over time, it became clear that to increase the volume and clarity of sound, it was necessary to separate the functions of recording and playback. What was done.
To create removable cylinders, previously covered with metal foil, electroforming began to be made.This made it possible to create copies, that is, not to record the sound on each cylinder, but to release whole batches of one record.
The stunning success of the first phonographs literally shook Edison. He was amazed at the success of his discovery. Many engineers, inventors began to work in this area, introducing new improvements. For example, Charles Teitner proposed a wax-coated cylinder that made it more durable.
As Edison had suggested at the beginning, the phonograph would be something like a typewriter for secretaries. But the recordings of popular music, which were increasingly in demand, allowed the use of a phonograph for domestic purposes. They made it possible to listen to music at home, make sound letters, books for the blind, use them as a dictaphone.
Edison's invention of the phonograph was the beginning of the era of sound recording and sound reproduction. Their production firms began to appear like mushrooms after rain. 10 years after Edison's invention, inventor Emil Berliner proposed using a disk instead of a cylinder. The very first one was made of zinc, later ebonite and shellac were used.A track was spiraled along it, along which sound was reproduced with a needle.
This allowed dozens of times to increase the volume of the sound and reduce its distortion. In 1912, the Edison firm released a phonograph with an ebonite disc. The movement of the disk was attached by a spring, which was twisted with a handle. The consequence of the invention of the phonograph was a gramophone, followed by a gramophone, which was produced until the 50s of the twentieth century.