Symptoms of derealization and treatment
Despite the apparent complexity of the term "derealization", this condition is characteristic of many people. A person often begins to use the words “as if”, “like”, “like”. The serious condition of the patient is characterized by almost complete loss of reality.
The derealization syndrome is a steady deviation from the norm, a perception of reality in a distorted form. A person who has such a pathology may not feel the reality, everything seems to him distant and elusive, the world in his understanding becomes colorless. Along with these sensations it may seem that some events have already been experienced, and some sensations have already been present in life.
World morbidity statistics indicate that the disease often occurs on the background of a personality disorder, which is interpreted as depersonalization.
What is unpleasant disease?
Derealization refers to the pathologies of minor psychiatry. In most cases, patients are able to behave adequately, to control their feelings, they are completely sane. However, there is a certain deterioration in the quality of life.
The main difference between a sick person and a healthy person is that he cannot always explain when exactly what changes have taken place, and all descriptions are reduced to comparative characteristics.
Pathology is characteristic of individuals who have a history of panic attacks, panic disorder, or other phobias. The disease can be the result of an overstrain: both physical and emotional.
As in most cases with mental disorders, the symptoms of derealization are different and multifaceted. A person suffering from such a disorder feels the world beyond reality, it seems to him that he himself exists separately from it. And the life that flows around becomes frozen and almost unreal.
Patients complain that reality is ghostly and faded. Everything that happens seems vague and as if viewed under a frosted glass. And most importantly - the emotional significance of almost all events is lost.
Symptoms of derealization can even include the feeling of loss of visual volumes of surrounding objects, all contours seem blurry, there is no clarity and brightness, even with good vision. Periodically, it seems that everything around is a frozen decoration.
With moderate pathology, the patient can perceive the surrounding, and familiar terrain, upside down, sometimes in a mirror image. A person immediately loses control over himself and his movements, does not understand where to go.
In some cases, the symptoms of derealization are characterized by acoustic changes. Sounds become muffled, very distant and even incomprehensible.
Tactile sensations can also change, a person cannot determine by touch the metal or wood. The complexity is even the definition of whether it is barbed or wet surface.
In some cases, changes are observed at the level of taste receptors: the patient does not distinguish between sweet food or salty, hot or cold, can not determine whether it is tasty or not.
Symptoms of derealization may be accompanied by an incorrect perception of the time frame. Simply put, a person cannot clearly define when an event happened to him. It seems that time is running too fast, then stretches too slowly. There is no difference between the past and the present.
In the most severe cases, patients have short-term amnesia. That is, a person cannot remember at all where he was yesterday, what he did, ate, slept.
Symptoms of derealization in the IRR are not characterized by the fear of death, but by the fear of becoming crazy. When the IRR can be a problem with hearing, shortness of breath - even in a calm state. Pressure can constantly rise and fall. A person gradually loses social connections.
Why can pathology appear?
Symptoms of derealization, the treatment of which will be carried out in the future, do not occur spontaneously. The factors that can lead to illness include:
- biochemical effects, more precisely, processes occurring in the brain, for example, insufficient production of serotonin or norepinephrine;
- genetic disorders;
- personal characteristics such as excessive susceptibility or suspiciousness, obsession with the negative;
- physical pathologies, for example, excessive thyroid function or a decrease in blood glucose levels, breathing problems;
- social factors, in particular, the situation in the family, work collective, constant stressful situations.
Naturally, not in the last place among the causes of derealization is the "wrong" lifestyle, abuse of alcohol, tobacco and drugs. At risk and those who overdo it with taking psychotropic drugs, does not have a good rest. The reason may be permanent heavy physical and mental stress.
Physiological causes of the onset of the disease
Vascular dystonia and osteochondrosis, somatic diseases, problems with the cervical spine can be attributed to the physiological provocateurs of the disease.
Most often it is against the background of the IRR that derealization and depersonalization occur. Symptomatology proceeds against the background of panic attacks, which are inherent in mental disorders. Typically, the patient is quite critical of his condition and understands that something wrong is happening to him. This attitude is not typical for mental illness.
Regarding problems with the cervical vertebra is also not so simple. In this part of the body, a huge number of nerve endings and any, even minor problems in this area lead to multiple pathologies, including the state of derealization.The arteries are compressed, a small amount of oxygen enters the brain, the blood supply slows down, headaches begin, coordination problems begin. The patient has dizziness, weakness in the limbs. Not surprisingly, some moments of life seem completely unrealistic. If you do not deal with problems in the cervical vertebrae, then you can “earn” a lot of new and unpleasant diseases.
The method of determining the pathology is based not only on the diagnosis itself, but also on the establishment or elimination of parallel psychopathic disorders.
In the first place in the diagnosis is a thorough study of the psychiatric history. The patient is necessarily interrogated, survey is carried out. Blood and urine tests are usually taken to determine the presence or absence of physical pathologies. Probably, magnetic resonance imaging or electroencephalogram will be shown.
In order for an accurate diagnosis to be made, it is necessary that three prerequisites be met:
- the patient must be critical of himself;
- fully aware that distorted reality is not reality;
- the patient must be fully conscious.
If psychological disorders are suspected, the patient should not panic. He must accept the changed perception of reality, rather not try to deny the problem, and immediately turn to professionals. Only an expert in the field of psychology can make an accurate and correct diagnosis.
Treatment of symptoms of derealization cannot be separate from the treatment of the underlying disease. Simply put, the syndrome is not a separate disease and requires the identification of the underlying pathology that caused the appearance of derealization.
The diagnosis and treatment are handled by medical specialists, psychiatrists, psychologists and psychotherapists.
If the syndrome is associated with irrational anxiety, then tranquilizers from the so-called “anti-anxiety” group are appointed. In this case, it is impossible to prescribe a treatment on their own, since the tablets will have to be taken in a “loading” dose.
If the symptoms and causes of derealization confirm the basis of the onset of pathology - a depressive disorder, then appropriate drugs are prescribed.These may be anti-depressants of the SIOZ or anticonvulsants.
Many psychologists believe that the disease is treatable through a psychoanalytic approach. But only in those cases, if the pathology appeared against the background of a state of long-term suppression of emotions or intrapersonal conflicts, and in the history of children, emotional trauma. The basis of this approach is the opinion that the constant stay in a state of frustration causes the human body to defend itself, often this is due to a change in consciousness.
In this case, psychotherapeutic methods, especially cognitive-behavioral techniques, show high efficiency. It is recommended to use self-hypnosis techniques, aesthetics or art therapy may be indicated. Good results are obtained by hypnosis, which allows you to adjust the distorted perception of reality.
Cognitive-behavioral techniques are designed to restore the normal emotional state. The psychiatrist is trying to restore the patient’s normal flow of thoughts. Muscle relaxation can be used along with psychotherapy.As a result of treatment, the patient must learn to block the attacks of derealization.
Derealization or depersonalization?
Often confused symptoms of derealization and depersonalization, and therefore make the wrong diagnosis. Pathologies have a different basis: with derealization, a person feels the unreality of what is happening inside, but if we are talking about depersonalization, the patient has “wrong” feelings inside.
Even in the writings of a 19th century psychiatrist Leon Duguy, one can come across the concept of depersonalization, he interpreted it as a loss of his own "I."
Already in the twentieth century, Gaug, a German psychiatrist, identified three types of depersonalization:
- Allopsychic. Pathology does not apply to severe mental disorders, but people with a similar diagnosis see life as a screen in a movie theater. Some patients mistakenly turn to an optometrist, since all the surrounding paints seem pale or, on the contrary, variegated, tormented by fantastic images.
- Somatic. This type of disorder is characterized by changes in the perception of its own body, it seems alien. Despite a clear understanding that everything is normal, it seems to patients that they can be carried away by the wind.In such cases, a sick person will try to injure himself lightly, because a slight pain confirms that everything is in order with the body.
- Autopsychic. In this case, a person has a split of his own "I." At the same time, one “I” can stay awake, and the other can be completely at ease. Some patients claim that their astral soul periodically separates from the body. It is this form of depersonalization that is hardest tolerated by patients.
Derealization and depersonalization may be present in the diagnosis as a combined disease.
If signs and symptoms of derealization are noted, then in addition to treatment, rehabilitation and preventive measures should be present, aimed at eliminating all provoking factors from life.
First of all, it is necessary to restore the quality of sleep, normalize your life, begin to eat right, rest. Also recommended:
- completely give up any bad habits;
- go to an active lifestyle;
- daily load yourself physically, naturally, within reason.
For the treatment of derealization, it is recommended to change the familiar environment for a while, try to expand the circle of contacts and always be in a good mood.
Simple things in the life of the patient
Good things come from simple things like:
- aroma lamps;
- swimming pool
The main thing is to learn to think positively, to be able to relax and rest. Periodically it is necessary to completely "disconnect" from your problems and do your favorite thing, a hobby, listen to pleasant and relaxing music. It is recommended to surround yourself with only nice people; if communication with a particular person causes negative emotions, then it is better to refuse friendship with him.