Submachine gun "Cedar", "Scorpion". Submachine guns Sudayev, Shpagin, Thompson. Description, photo
During the First World War, it became clear that the infantry needed a weapon that could significantly increase its firepower. This task could only be accomplished by equipping the troops with automatic weapons, which at that time was a significant success due to the rate of fire. Then the troops were already such formidable machines, like machine guns. Of course, they were very effective, but if individual weapons had similar parameters, the firepower would have risen many times.
The concept of new weapons
The first attempt to solve this problem resulted in the development of many automatic rifles. But until the mid-1930s, this initiative was of little interest to anyone; at best, the automatic models were only partially in service.After all, automatic rifles then still inferior to the usual in weight, lightness and reliability, since they used all the same powerful rifle cartridges. The possibility of translating more advanced weapons into life appeared in the 1940s and was caused by a number of reasons.
But soon a new weapon was created using standard pistol cartridges - PP, - a submachine gun. Of course, it had a very small shooting distance and could only support rifles in shooting at short distances, while increasing the firepower of the unit. This article will tell you about the history of the emergence and development of submachine guns, as well as some samples of these weapons.
History and causes
A submachine gun as a separate type of weapon arose at the moment when rifles and pistols tended to intermediate samples, that is, to those that combined the characteristics of both types of weapons. When the capsule principle of ignition was still widespread, there were models of pistols or revolvers with attached butts, increasing the accuracy and firing range by 3-4 times.Also among the improvements were elongated trunks, mobile sights. Such modifications were similar in characteristics to light carbines.
Submachine guns were the result of long-term work to increase such important indicators as accuracy, rate of fire and firing range. These problems were solved in different ways - an increase in the power of the cartridge, the introduction of the most modernizations of the butt and barrel, and alterations in the design of the trigger mechanism. It was such a weapon that became the prototype of submachine guns.
The birth of new weapons
The first were the Russian samples, based on the design of pistols Mauzer 1906 and Borchardt-Luger 1904. But their use was unsuccessful, as there was a strong variation and impact.
Similar designs were developed and Italians - in 1915 appeared Ravelli. This weapon was heavy (about 6 kg), had a high rate of fire, and this overheated the barrel. In fact, it was a pair of pistols with a special shield. But in the conditions of trench warfare such weapons were recognized as ineffective.
The first successful development
One of the first successful examples of the submachine gun was the German Bergmann of 1918.It was not comprehensively tested in war, as it ended, but its design influenced in many ways the development of this type of weapon and was widely copied in many of its models. In this case, mainly technological changes were made, leaving the design unchanged.
And in 1921 a unique weapon appeared in America - the Thompson submachine gun. It was designed by one of the generals of the American army. Initially, this weapon was rejected by the leadership of the troops, but it found its use in the criminal world. Gangsters liked his high performance. After a while the police began to be equipped with the same weapon.
The concept of the submachine gun has undergone many changes, among them was the idea of equipping standard rifles with special mechanisms that could be removed. These devices turned a rifle into a rapid-fire weapon and a pistol-pistol firing weapon. But the idea had few supporters, due to the fact that the possibility of losing the bolt was great, since it had to be removed. There were also problems with equipping soldiers with two types of cartridges that needed to be worn.
Submachine guns in Russia
In Russia, the first samples of submachine guns begin to appear when the Soviet Army is actively reforming its weapons (1925). The increasing militarization required new weapons, they could only be cheap and practical samples that meet the basic requirements of the army.
The very first such weapon was the model of F.V. Tokarev. An atypical cartridge for the weapon of that time was used in its design - Nagan's revolving gun, which influenced the fate of the weapon. But the Tokarev submachine gun showed quite good results in testing and could even carry on with German samples. Weapons presented in 1927.
And already in 1929, V. A. Degtyarev launched his own submachine gun. Its development was similar to the early works of the designer (in particular, reminded of his DP machine gun). The weapon had a bolt similar to the machine-gun design - semi-free with side stops extending to the side, the receiver was arranged the same way. A similar building had a magazine for 22 bullet-shaped discs. Made a weapon was chambered for Mauser, pistol.By the way, most of the species of that time were made under it - in particular, the Korovin system or the Tokarev pistol.
In general, it was originally intended to use revolver cartridges in these models of weapons, but they had flaws, which made it possible to replace them with Mauser guns. In addition to these samples, the design of Spital was proposed, but the choice fell on the Degtyarev model, which was put into service in 1935.
New models - new solutions
Soon the Great Patriotic War broke out, the designers got more work. Even before it began, the Shpagin submachine gun was adopted by the Red Army. It was mass-produced from the beginning of the war, many factors contributed to its success. First, its design was impossibly simple. Secondly, only simple materials were needed for manufacturing, which made it possible to produce it even by small workshops without specialization in the weapons business.
In general, the PPSH had a great similarity with the Degtyarev model. It had a barrel box of a similar design with a barrel casing, a free-type shutter with a reloading handle, a sector-oriented sight, a wooden box, a fuse in front of the trigger guard, and a disk magazine. But its production greatly simplified and accelerated stamping.In the photo below you can see the Shpagin submachine gun (sample 1941).
The role of submachine guns with the course of the war has become increasingly clear. In this regard, not only increased their production, but also launched production and development of new models and modifications. In particular, the PCA received a new sector-type shop for 35 rounds, a significantly simplified sighting device. Also, due to the prevalence of this type of weapon, not only in the infantry, new requirements were put forward, which designers had to reckon with.
Were needed such a mass and compactness, which would preserve the high combat qualities of weapons. And Degtyarev, Shpagin, Rukavishnikov, Korovin, Soudaev set to work. Among their models, the most successful were samples of Shpagin and Degtyarev, however, during the tests, the model of Sudayev also performed well. It began to be produced in besieged Leningrad, and soon they were put into service as the “Soudaev submachine gun (1943 model)”. He gained the greatest popularity among the troops, as he was light, compact, effective at short distances. It was used in tank and airborne units most often and is considered one of the best submachine guns of the Second World War. The photo below shows the Sudayev submachine gun (sample of 1943).
Active development was carried out after the Second World War, in particular, it is possible to distinguish such models as Kalashnikov (arr. 1947) and Simonov. But in the future there were such requirements that the weapon with a pistol cartridge could no longer satisfy. Therefore, the developments on the pistol-machine guns were temporarily curtailed. The idea to return to them appeared in the 1960s, when such American models as the M10-M11 Ingrem and the Czechoslovak submachine gun Scorpion Vz61 became popular on the market. Impressed by these weapons, the Russian army leadership ordered the development of special weapons for sabotage units.
Development of the Russian submachine gun of the new sample
The weapon was designed chambered for 9 mm PM. A silencer was installed, the sight was designed for shooting up to 200 m. Two models participated in the competition - Afanasyev and Dragunov. Then the submachine gun of Dragunov, although it turned out to be better, did not possess sufficient accuracy of shooting, the work was stopped. However, an improved model of Degtyarev appeared in demand in the early 90s, when crime and organized crime reigned in the country.Since 1993, his modified model called "Kedr" begins to be produced on the orders of law enforcement agencies. They were interested in small-sized weapons with a complete set for a domestic cartridge. The submachine gun "Kedr" was tested in TsNIITOCHMASH, after which it was adopted by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and special forces.
Some famous and successful samples.
Submachine gun thompson
The weapon, which you can see in the photo below, was developed by American John Thompson.
There are a lot of good things to say about this gun. He still remains popular for shooting no more than 50 meters. But the submachine gun is very heavy - 5 kg without a magazine, while a fully equipped magazine with 100 rounds weighs about 4 kg. Therefore, this weapon can not be called easy. Return, oddly enough, is practically absent. He became famous for this submachine gun in gang disassembly. Subsequently, several modifications were issued that were adopted by the US Army. Today, the model is manufactured by Numrich.
Developed in the Czech Republic for special forces and service personnel - telecom operators, drivers, artillery calculations.The characteristics of the weapon is the Browning 7.65 mm cartridge, also the possibility of hidden carrying, using a silencer and low recoil. This allows you to effectively control the weapon. Among the disadvantages is the low stopping power of the bullet and penetrability. Nevertheless, it was widely sold to any country that wanted it. Used by terrorists to carry out terrorist acts in the 70-80s.
Submachine gun "Cedar"
Designed under the cartridge 9x18 mm PM. A distinctive feature of the weapon is a modular design that allows disassembly without the use of tools. We can distinguish the following modules: receiver, magazine, bolt, return spring, trigger mechanism. Differs in good accuracy of shooting, the possibility of hidden wearing, use of silencers, target designator, compact and convenient. These qualities allowed him to adopt the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
Submachine guns (photo)
- Pneumatic submachine gun UZI Israeli design.
- Submachine gun "Vityaz", used in special forces of the Russian Federation.
The article told you about the emergence of the first submachine guns, about the development of the concept of this weapon, as well as about the most successful models - foreign and domestic. We hope the information was useful to you.