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- Date: September 30, 2008
Su-34 front-line bomber
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Simultaneously with the creation of a single-seat multifunctional fighter Su-27M OKB im. At the beginning of the 1980s, P.O. Sukhoi began to develop the T-10B two-seat multi-purpose aircraft based on the Su-27, which has enhanced impact capabilities. This car was supposed to replace first of all the fighter-bombers Su-17 and MiG-27, which made up in 1970? 1980s the basis of the strike potential of the Soviet front-line aviation. The aircraft was supposed to carry a wide range of promising weapons and combine the capabilities of a front-line bomber and a fighter to gain air supremacy. High maneuverability and speed characteristics made it possible to use the new fighter-bomber in close and long-range missile air combat.
Initially, the design of the T-10B fighter-bomber (Su-27IB) was based on the design of a two-seater combat training aircraft Su-27UB (the advance design of such an aircraft was released in 1983).It was supposed to enter the new radio-electronic equipment and armament into the practically unchanged design of the airframe.
However, in the future, it was decided to locate the crew nearby (like on a Su-24 bomber), which promised to increase the effectiveness of combat use and flight safety. In addition, this arrangement allowed to get rid of duplication of a number of devices. The ergonomics of the cockpit improved, making it possible to carry out longer flights.
The next step was the use of the wing with a new influx, which housed the front horizontal tail (GIP). It was decided to abandon the regulated air intake, which was caused by the specifics of the combat use of the strike aircraft. Changing the layout allowed an increase in the internal fuel reserve by almost 30% and an increase in the volume of the on-board equipment.
The party and government decree on the Su-27IB was issued on June 19, 1986, and in 1987 a design draft of a fighter-bomber was prepared. The complete set of his avionics should have included a multi-function radar with a phased antenna array,built-in optical-electronic surveillance and sighting system with television and laser channels for detecting and identifying targets, as well as aiming at them weapons, rear view radar, a powerful EW complex and other equipment. A 24-hour thermal imaging system developed by TsKB Geophysics should have been placed on the external suspension in a container.
By 1990, the design of the new machine was basically completed, and soon on the pilot production of the machine-building plant named after Y.A. P. O. Sukhoi began work on the transformation of one of the serial training and combat aircraft Su-27UB in the prototype fighter-bomber T-10B-1 (later known as the Su-34-1). At the Novosibirsk Aviation Plant. V.P. Chkalov produced a new nasal section of the fighter-bomber, which was then installed on the upgraded glider “Sparki”. Air intakes and engine nacelles were also replaced. The first flight of the converted aircraft took place on April 13, 1991 at the aerodrome of LII MAP (the city of Zhukovsky). The car was piloted by honored test pilot A. Ivanov.
Simultaneously with the testing of the first prototype at the plant. VPChkalov in Novosibirsk began preparations for the mass production of a fighter-bomber. At the end of 1993, the assembly of the prototype T-10B-2 aircraft, which made its first flight on December 18, 1993, was completed. The car with the tail number? 43? The test pilots were piloted by I. V. Votintsev and A. I. Gaivoronsky (the plane was represented in the media as? Su-34?). March 3, 1994 this aircraft made a non-stop flight from Novosibirsk to Zhukovsky. In the summer of 1994, the T-10B-2 was first publicly demonstrated at the international aerospace show in Paris. At the same time, the aircraft was renamed and presented to the Parisians as the Su-34FN (FN? Fighter Navy, i.e. the fighter of the sea). The English abbreviation in the name of the fighter-bomber testified to the desire of its creators to promote the aircraft on the external arms market.
In 1996 and 1997 In Novosibirsk, was built two more aircraft of the experimental series? T-10B-5 and T-10B-6. Currently, the Su-27IB is considered as one of the highest priority programs of the Russian Air Force. According to a number of experts, the level of the avionics of this machine allows to refer it to the fifth generation combat aircraft.After the aircraft is accepted into service with the Russian Air Force, it is supposed to assign the name Su-34 to it. It is assumed that the new machine will replace the long-range Tu-22MZ bombers, as well as partly Su-24M front-line bombers (Russia's economic realities are unlikely to allow the Su-24M to be replaced by 1: 1). At the same time, the Su-34, which is now classified as a front-line bomber, will be assigned to perform the most complex and demanding percussion tasks, and the more routine one. work in the FA Air Force will be until the 2010s. perform modified Su-24M.
The aircraft has significant potential for further development. Currently, in addition to the bomber modification, work is underway to create new versions of the Su-34, in particular? reconnaissance aircraft and EW aircraft. In the future, after mastering the mass production of new generation AL-41F turbofans with a UHT system, which is expected after 2005, this engine will be installed on the Su-34, which will significantly increase the combat capabilities of the bomber. According to press reports, one of the experienced Su-27IB received the first baptism of fire in 2000 during the antiterrorist operation in Chechnya,and in the course of the complex exercises of the Air Force, conducted in April of the same year, the Su-27IB, equipped with an EW station? Khibiny ?, performed the? cover? Su-24M front-line bombers.
Su-27IB is designed to destroy ground (surface), including small-sized mobile and stationary objects in the tactical and operational depth of the enemy, as well as air targets, day and night, in simple and complex meteorological conditions.
FEATURES OF THE DESIGN
The Su-34 aircraft is made according to the normal aerodynamic scheme with the addition of the front horizontal tail (this scheme is known as the “integral longitudinal triplane?”). Compared with the Su-27, the shape of the cantilevered wing and tail assembly was preserved with little or no change, but the wing overhangs were extended to the forward fuselage.
The nose of the fuselage, having an ellipsoid section, is extended to install the radar antenna. The crew cabin for two persons, in which the pilot is placed (on the left) and the navigator-operator (on the right), is designed as a welded titanium armored capsule. The crew members are located in ejection seats K-36MD. Bailouts are possible in all modes (including taxiing).
The aircraft used a new carriage landing gear with a tandem wheel arrangement on the main pillars, providing the aircraft with good traffic through poorly prepared airfields. The front landing gear polurychazhnogo type is equipped with two wheels. Key support retracted in the direction of flight in a niche with a turn of center bogies.
Experience combat use of aircraft at low altitude was considered the creators of the Su-27IB. The cockpit of this aircraft is made (for the first time in world practice on machines of this class) in the form of an armored titanium capsule. Other vital elements of the structure, in particular the fuel tank and engines, have received enhanced protection. The total mass of structural protection elements was 1480 kg. All this, in combination with the means of protection implemented on the Su-27 aircraft, provided the Su-27IB with a high degree of survival in low-altitude flight over the territory saturated with air defense systems.
Another element that increases combat survivability was the presence of a second command from the navigator operator. Long flight, the Su-27IB has become much more comfortable.The crew members were able to get up in the cockpit of a full-length, which allows them to recover from his stiff muscles in the cabin came a toilet and a wardrobe for heating food. The air system at an altitude of up to 10,000 m maintains a pressure in the cockpit corresponding to an altitude of 2400 m, which allows the crew to fly without oxygen masks. There is a powerful air conditioning system. All this ensures a high performance of the pilots for a long flight lasting up to 10 hours, further increasing the combat potential of the Su-27IB.
Is the bomber equipped with two TRDDFs of the family? AL-31F (2x7600 / 12 500 kgfs). There APU. Does the fuel system include three tanks in the fuselage, one? in the center section, and two? in the wing consoles. Possible suspension of three PTB with a capacity of 3000 liters. There is a system for refueling in flight by the method? Hose-cone? (Fuel reception can be carried out? Tankers? Il-78 and Il-78M, the same type of aircraft Su-34 and Su-24M bombers, equipped with an outboard unit ORM).
AIRPLANE SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT
Bomber is equipped with piloting and navigation system comprising an inertial navigation system, the receiver skompleksirovannuyu satellite navigation system and navigation means.To control the aircraft using a digital multichannel SDU. The system automatically monitors the current values of the angle of attack and overload, automatically controls the position of the CIP, ensuring damping of the aircraft oscillations in the plane of pitch. The active safety system, implemented on the bomber, automatically prevents access to unacceptable flight modes and collision with the ground during low-altitude flight. There is a mode of reduction to the horizon and removal from the corkscrew. The system, made using the elements of artificial intelligence, automatically controls the physical condition and actions of the pilots, the operation of the onboard systems and the remaining fuel, and also provides automatic return to the airfield and landing approach.
The onboard radio-electronic complex provides the solution of combat missions in the whole range of conditions of use with a high degree of automation. The structure of the complex? separately integral. All information systems are arranged as autonomous equipment, which includes computing units based on high-power digital computers? Argon ?, as well as a number of specially programmable processors.All units are controlled by a central computer system, which fully coordinates the work, data exchange and provides intellectual assistance to the crew of the aircraft in solving combat tasks.
The complex is designed to determine the coordinates of ground, surface and air targets, control of on-board armament, ensure low-altitude flight in rounding-up mode of the terrain, aircraft defense, electronic warfare, organizing group actions of several airplanes, identifying state property, ensuring electromagnetic compatibility on board and giving readings to onboard weapons .
Antenna system of the complex includes a main-range PARA and an additional built-in phased antenna array. HEADLIGHT of the main range provides the formation and scanning of the radiation pattern of the type “sharp beam”, “wide beam”, “flat beam”, “cossection beam” and? focused beam? (control mode). The antenna has an elliptical shape that fits well with the contours of the forward fuselage of the Su-34.
The modular design of the entire complex, duplication of software and equipment,as well as the simultaneous operation of all information systems make it possible to solve a combat mission in the event of partial failure and even failure of some information systems. The separate design allows you to easily change the composition of the complex, introducing, if necessary, new information systems.
The bomber is also equipped with a rear view radar, which not only warns the crew of an enemy attack, but also provides control of air-to-air missiles. in the rear hemisphere. The capabilities of the aircraft to detect and attack small targets are enhanced by using a two-channel television and thermal imaging system, combined with a laser range finder-target indicator. Channels can work both jointly and separately, depending on weather conditions and time of day.
The central computing control system includes the workplace of the navigator-operator, the central computer and the multiplexed data transmission bus. At the workplace of the navigator-operator, there are two multifunctional color indicators on a CRT with a liquid crystal panel.The displays indicate the processed information: from systems? alphanumeric from computer? in the form of characters. Indicators allow you to mix images in the "big picture" mode, when simultaneous information from different systems is displayed on one screen.
The maritime version of the aircraft (its export modification is known as the Cy-32FN) is equipped with a complex of electronic equipment, upgraded to solve additional problems. The Cyo-32FN avionics complex provides reconnaissance, observation of the sea surface, search for submarines, mine detection and fighting of surface crusts - a fool, swearing, vile, fat, bearded. They do not give me sex chicks, I train in the ass of the opponent's Christmas trees.
When fighting against submarines (submarines), the avionics complex can search for targets when receiving preliminary targeting from other means, including space ones. All search and targeting operations are implemented automatically. The intelligent crew assistance system ensures the continuity of the combat mission without the intervention of the operator, and also allows you to implement several options for solving it.
The main means of detecting submarines on board the Su-34FN aircraft are the radar complex combined with radio-acoustic buoys (RGAB), as well as a magnetic anomaly sensor located in the tail boom. The aircraft is capable of taking on board up to 72 RGAB, which include several passive direction finders, operating in a wide frequency range, active RGAB and means of explosive wave generation.
Su-34 includes a built-in gun GSH-301 (30 mm, 1800 rounds per minute) with an ammunition load of 180 shells. At 12 nodes external suspension (under the fuselage, nacelles and wing consoles) can accommodate up to 8,000 kg of various weapons. The complex of high-precision strike weapons ensures the destruction of ground (surface) targets at a range of up to 250 km. It includes X-59M tactical cruise missiles with television command guidance (up to three KR), air-to-surface missiles. type X-29, X-25M and C-25L (up to six units), anti-ship missiles of four types with a range of 250, 180 and 70 km, anti-radar high-speed missiles of type X-31 (up to six), up to three adjustable air bombs of caliber 1500 kg or up to six caliber 500 kg, torpedoes (up to four units).Under the fuselage (in the marine version) a container with 70 radio-acoustic buoys can be suspended.
? Non-intellectual? weapons for hitting ground targets are similar to those of the Su-27 and include up to six units with NAR S-8 (120 missiles) or S-13 (30 NAR), eight containers of KMGU, as well as up to six S-25 missiles, up to seven containers small cargoes of KMGU, up to three FAB-1500, up to 16 FAB-500, up to 36 FAB-250 or up to 48 OFAB-100-120.
Missile weapons? Air-to-air? On the whole, it is similar to the armament of other modernized aircraft of the Su-27 family. It includes up to eight medium-range missiles with active radar homing RVV-AE or short-range UR R-73 with TGS, up to six medium-range missiles of type R-27. On the end parts of the wing can be placed two containers with EW system. Under the wing and fuselage three PTBs of 3000 l each are suspended.