Scientism is what? What is scientism and antisocialism?
The philosopher Andre Comte-Sponville once said thatscientism is "dangerous nonsense". Is it so? What is it really? What are the main features of scientism and antiscymentism? Let's find out more about this.
Scientism is ...
The end of the XV - the beginning of the XVI centuries are known in Europe asthe era of the High Renaissance. At this time, great geographical discoveries are made, a cultural and scientific revolution is taking place. The old foundations crumble in the minds of people, they are replaced by completely new views of the world around them. That's when scientism appears.
The term comes from the Latin word scientia,which is translated into Russian as "a fundamental science, knowledge of the fundamentals." Scientism is a worldview that represents science as the fundamental source of knowledge of the world. It reaches its greatest development in the XIX-XX centuries, especially in the era of the scientific and technological revolution.
Supporters of the concept consider natural andtechnical sciences are the only correct, carrying the truth. The name "scientism", as a rule, is used in negative connotation by critics of the idea. In opposition to this position, anti-centristism is put forward, which denies the ascension of science to the rank of religion, underrating its importance for humanity.
The essence of the concept
The supreme value that scientism takes isthe science. It is the only source of real knowledge, contributes to solving important human problems. Knowledge obtained by other ways is erroneous and not true. Scientism is only an ideological orientation that does not have specific postulates and a clear system of views.
Scientists admire the scientific progress andachievements. Deny philosophy as a reliable path to knowledge. In their opinion, science gives life meaning, answers the most difficult questions. It organizes the surrounding world, which makes it understandable and organized. This, in turn, leads to success. Scientists are convinced that social and cultural values come from science. It dictates their development. Adherents of this world view believe that all spheres of life should be "taught", the life of society must be modernized for its own good.
Rapid technical development not onlydelighted, but also a scarecrow. In connection with the popularity of scientism, another concept emerged, completely contradicting it. Her supporters drew knowledge from alternative sources: philosophy, art, religion. Anti-scientists do not trust science with such rejection, arguing that its excess can also do much harm. They believe that some achievements can lead to the death of humanity or cause him irreparable harm. This may include, for example, the development of nuclear physics or the development of metallurgy, which pollutes the atmosphere.
The mood of the anti-scientist is different. Some refer to science radically, opposing its development in principle. Others hold moderate views. They admit the existence of science, but do not exaggerate its role. They perceive it as an auxiliary, rather than a fundamental element of life. Opponents of scientism say that in the development of man important role is played not only by accurate calculations, but also by personal experience, own thoughts and intuition.
Scientism and antiscientism in philosophy appear inas two opposite points of view. Science can really greatly facilitate a person's life, make it more successful and prosperous. At the same time, it should not displace other spheres of knowledge. Both theories are radical enough and go to extremes. Adherents of progress were most often scientists. For example, Rutherford once said: "Science is divided into physics and collecting stamps." Taking the slogan "knowledge is power", scientists believe in omnipotence and the need for science.
Their opponents are sure that the technical developmentis devoid of soul. Measuring everything around with formulas, figures, classifications, a person loses the creative component of life, its romanticism and unpredictability. Anti-centrist views can be found in many Utopian writers. Their novels often describe the negative aspects of progress, as a result of which people lose their individuality and independence.