Replacing the floor in the apartment and private house. Floor repair
Most often, the replacement of old floors is required in the Khrushchev or in private homes. After all, it is here that the coating has been exploited for a long time. The floors in such housing, as a rule, are wooden. Of course, this material is durable, eco-friendly, affordable and having reliable heat-shielding characteristics. However, despite this, over time, the tree begins to undergo deformation due to constant loads, temperature changes and air humidity. In the end, there comes a time when you have to do major repairs and decide to replace the floor. However, before performing such work, you will need to determine the degree of wear of the coating. This will allow to consider and possible options for its repair.
Before starting work, you will need to decide on their appearance. Replacing the floor, made of wood, is made in the case of:
- The appearance on the boards of a significant number of longitudinal cracks.This indicates that the tree has cracked, and in the near future it will just fall to pieces. What is meant by a large number of cracks? A dozen of them on the entire surface of the floor should already become a disturbing bell for the owner. The reason for such cracking of floorboards is, as a rule, non-compliance with the humidity conditions in the room. As a result, they are drying out.
- The occurrence of local failure of wood. In this case, a mandatory replacement of the floor is required. After all, the fact that the board breaks becomes a clear confirmation that it is rotten.
Repairing the floor is done when the floorboards creak. This is the least of all the evils that can happen with the old coating. However, it is worth while making sure that this squeak is caused by not rotting lags. And for this you need to tear off one or two floorboards in the place where there is an unpleasant sound. If the logs turn out to be rotten, then replacing the floor will simply be necessary.
Consider coatings with a concrete base. Replacing the floor in the apartment in this case is assumed for two reasons:
- The presence of a large number of cracks.Tie the floor suit not only to make it easier to walk around the house or around the apartment. It is also necessary for uniform distribution of loads on the floor slabs. The cracked screed cannot cope with its functions. Its deformation leads to the concentration of loads in one place, which is fraught with negative consequences, especially for the old house.
- Scattering the screed until it turns into sand. Replacing floors in an apartment or in a private house in this case is necessary.
Preparation for laying new wooden flooring
After the diagnosis has been carried out, convincingly proved the need to replace the floor when repairing apartments, it will be necessary to dismantle the old coating. To do this, you must first prepare:
- hammer with a nail puller;
- electric saw or jigsaw with the help of which old boards will be sawn;
- trash bags.
The dismantling process begins with the removal of baseboards around the perimeter of the rooms. Next, using a nail puller, they pull out previously hammered nails. If the floorboards were attached to the logs with self-tapping screws, then take a screwdriver.Removed wooden elements should be removed from the premises, and then proceed to dismantle the log. Often these parts are securely attached to the sub-floor. That is why the logs are removed carefully, which will not damage the floor slabs and save time on glossing over the holes formed.
After complete dismantling of the old coating, the room is thoroughly cleaned. And only after that, the start of work on the arrangement of new floors is possible.
What make the floor in the apartment? How was it - wooden? Or maybe pour cement screed on the premises? As a rule, the issue is solved in favor of the wooden flooring, if one has been there before. The only exception is the replacement of the floor in the kitchen and in the hallway. In these rooms, the preferred option for covering is a tile. And it is almost impossible to lay it on a wooden surface. But if the tile in these rooms is not provided for by the repair plans, then the need for a floor screed disappears by itself.
Anyone who decided to replace the floor in the Khrushchev with his own hands, is still worth considering the option of arranging wooden surfaces.After all, the screed has a significant weight, on which the overlap in the old building may simply not be calculated.
How to make the replacement of the floor with his hands in the Khrushchev or in a private house? The technology of arranging a coating made of wood is not as complex as it is described. At the initial stage, you will need to install lags. They should be located from each other at a distance of 600 to 800 mm and be strictly in the plane of the horizon. To align the lag use bars. After obtaining a single plane, this foundation under the floor is desirable to fix to the floors with the help of U-shaped brackets. The principle of this work is similar to that used when installing ceiling profiles to accommodate drywall. Only perform all the actions necessary in the mirror image.
As a log can be installed adjustable supports. They are studs equipped with nuts and washers. The rotation of the nuts allows you to raise or lower the lag, aligning it to the plane of the horizon. How much does a floor replacement cost in this case? It should be borne in mind that the adjustable elements will significantly increase the size of the investment of monetary amounts.
When replacing the floor in a private house you will need to inspect the condition of those support columns that are under the lags. They must be in good condition. If the columns were not originally, then you need to mount them. For this purpose, the ground is removed and compacted in the designated places. Next, fit the plastic film. It is necessary for waterproofing the foundation. After crushed stone is filled up, a reinforcing mesh is installed and the formwork for the foundation under the column is mounted. The support itself is laid out of the brick in two rows using a cement mixture. Top columns should be waterproofed.
Laying wooden flooring
At the final stage of work, boards or sheets of OSB will be laid. In the case of using the second of these two materials, the lags will need to be installed in 62.5 cm increments. The OSB is laid in two layers. The second one is fastened with screws to the first one and must be laid in the opposite direction from it.
The device of floors from boards is simpler in comparison with use of OSB in the way. However, working with floorboards will be much more. After all, each of them will need to fit in size and at the same time closely monitor the docking ends. They should not be out of lag.
Because of the laboriousness of the work, many owners who make the replacement of the floor with their own hands prefer OSB. The coating in this case is more reliable and has fewer seams. On it, without any further processing can be carried out laying parquet, laminate, linoleum and other finishing materials.
But in any case it is important to pay attention to the space under the flooring. It must be ventilated. To do this, experts recommend around the entire perimeter of the room to leave a small (0.5 cm) gap between the walls and the floor, which subsequently will be blocked by the plinth. Often, when replacing the floor in a private house, holes are drilled in the corners of rooms. They will ensure the ventilation of the underground. Such openings, which it is desirable to place in the corners located crosswise, can be covered with decorative plates.
Cement screed replacement
The technology of performing these works is much more complicated than those described above. Replacing wooden floors with concrete will require considerable labor costs.
At the first stage, the floor slabs are also released, and the resulting waste is taken out of the apartment.After that, waterproofing is placed on the cleaned surface. For it, a dense polyethylene film is used, which will not allow the water, which is part of the cement mortar, to tread on the ceiling of the apartment, located on the floor below.
Replacing the floor covering, which begins with a screed, eliminates some unevenness in the base. This becomes possible due to backfilling, as well as filling the floor with the use of a special composition that forms a perfectly flat surface. In addition, the screed allows you to strengthen the surface of the concrete slab and increase its strength characteristics. This technology is different. To date, these are the three existing options for arranging the foundation for the installation of top flooring. Consider them in more detail.
This option is applied, as a rule, when overhauling floors in private homes. The fact is that the main disadvantage of a standard tie for high-rise buildings is the presence of a large amount of water in the solution, which does not evaporate, and, seeking all kinds of loopholes, rushes to the ceiling of the neighbors of the lower apartment.And from such a lack of material is not able to save and pre-laid on the floor slab waterproofing film. This fact does not allow the use of this version of the screed. And this is despite its low cost and ease of self-production.
It is an excellent alternative to the previous version. A semi-dry screed is a reasonably cheap option for replacing a wooden floor in an apartment. The minimum amount of water is added to its solution. It turns out a special mass, which the builders call the hartsovka. It is a cement mixed with dry sand, in which just a few drops of water are added. When laying such a mixture, the film for hydrosolation is laid only just in case, for reinsurance. However, this screed leveled hard. Sometimes in order to create a perfectly flat surface, it has to be additionally wetted with water. The cost of work with its use is slightly higher than when using the standard version.
We can say that this option is ideal for creating the best floor in the apartment.With this technology, the use of water is not provided at all. Perhaps that is why it can be attributed only formally to the screed. To a greater extent, such a coating is similar to wooden flooring.
The execution of a dry screed begins with the installation of beacons, against which dumping is performed at the horizon level, for which a fine granular insulating material is taken. On top of this layer is laying gypsum-fiber boards. According to its technical characteristics, the coating obtained is similar to the cement-sand floor screed. This allows him to withstand all arising loads for a long time.
When using a dry screed, it is possible to replace the wooden floor with laminate, tile and other types of flooring. There are no restrictions on this issue.
The only disadvantage of each type of floor screed is cold. Walking on this base barefoot is impossible. The only way to warm it will be the arrangement of warm floors.
Select the type of coverage
After the screed, you can proceed to the final stage of the overhaul of floors.It consists in the selection and installation of flooring. Which option for the house or apartment will be the most suitable? Here you can be guided by the following principles:
- personal preference;
- durability, strength and reliability of the material;
- type of coating;
- by price.
As a rule, in the toilet and in the bathroom (less often in the hallway and in the kitchen) choose porcelain tile or tile. The rooms are laid parquet (sheet or piece), linoleum, laminate or carpet.
Before you opt for a particular material, you must heed the advice of experts. The best solution will be the perfect match between two factors such as price and quality. But, be that as it may, it is necessary to acquire material that will allow to preserve the strength of the floor for the next 10-15 years.
If the performed diagnostics did not indicate the need to replace the floor, then the work with the coating will be much less. It will only need to be repaired.
How to do it? Consider the options for such works for different genders.
- On a concrete base. In that case, if the flooring is not located on the logs, then you will need to remove the damaged portions. For example, a hole in linoleum can be closed with a patch from a new piece.Moving or falling off tiles is desirable to remove altogether. But in this and in another case, the surface of the floor is cleaned from the damaged material and put on it a new solution. After complete drying of the concrete, patches of linoleum, tile or other material are applied. As a solution, a special mixture or glue can be used. If restoration is required for the entire concrete foundation, you will have to perform a screed.
- Wooden floors, as a rule, annoy their "old" creak. To eliminate this problem, you will need to explore the "vocal" zone. Often, problems arise due to loosening fasteners. If this is the case, the floorboards will need to be additionally secured with galvanized screws or nails. If the “squeaky” problem has deeper roots, then the struggle with it is possible by other methods. The most common cause of unpleasant sounds is not sufficiently firmly in the groove of the tongue groove. This can be corrected after careful removal of the baseboard and removal of the extreme board, and after all those reaching the squeak area. From the dismantled floorboards and baseboards will need to get nails.After you should check the lags, making, if necessary, a partial or complete replacement of damaged elements. Next, the floor is laid back and secured with screws in places that are 3 cm from the previous point of fixation. If the squeak of the floorboards arises due to their insufficient adhesion to the lag, then this problem can be eliminated by laying a wedge, cardboard or piece of roofing material, which is wedged under the board from the subfloor. Two additional screws are screwed into the area and placed at an angle to each other and to the creaking board. Another way to get rid of squeaking is to put talc or graphite powder in the gap between the floorboards. Sometimes, when repairing wooden floors, it is necessary to replace damaged boards. And if impressive gaps formed between the floorboards, they should be cleaned and primed after pre-polishing the surface. Next, the floor is covered with nitrolacom and covered with a finishing agent.
- Minor damage on the surface of ceramic tiles or laminate, as a rule, mask. To do this, you also need to know some secrets.For example, scratches on a laminate can be restored with a wax pencil. To mask the minor defects are special pastes. When the laminate swells or its large area of damage, the coating will require replacement. But the formation of cracks and chips on the tile is eliminated with the help of cement milk. But if the damage is significant and it is impossible to hide the defects, it is still desirable to replace the tile.
These are the features of the process of replacing floors in private homes and apartments.