Project activities in pre-school. Technology project activities in pre-school
Currently, the state has set a sufficiently clear and important task for educational institutions: to prepare the most active and curious young generation as possible. The main programs today have long established the basic requirements that a graduate of even a kindergarten must meet.
In order for the child to become truly inquisitive and strive to obtain new knowledge himself, and not by coercion, it is extremely important that in the process of his upbringing project activities are actively used. In the pre-school educational institution of our country, this area is not yet well developed, but the situation is gradually changing with each passing year.
What is it all for?
The fact is that projects are exactly capable of linking a not too cheerful educational process with real events that happen from time to time in a child’s life, which attracts and may interest even the most restless kid.In addition, it is precisely the project activity in pre-school that allows you to turn any team into a cohesive team, whose members can work together to solve even the most complex and non-trivial tasks. In such conditions, each child may feel needed, interested in performing an important task.
What is a project? General information about the concept
You should know that the term “project” was borrowed from the classical Latin language, in which it originally meant “thrown forward”, “speaking”, “striking the eye”. And how to link all this with work in a preschool educational institution? In this case, the “project” is a way for a child to assimilate information about the world around him, when he independently searches for information and prepares its announcement in front of his peers. The main work in the direction of cognitive activity is performed by the teacher.
It is important to remember that the project activity in the DOE must necessarily imply the receipt of a socially significant result. Simply put, the work should be based on a certain problem, the solution of which requires a consistent search, clarification of the most crucial points. The results of this activity are analyzed and combined into a single whole.
From a pedagogical point of view
From the teacher's point of view, project activity in preschool is good in that it implies children's independent activity, as a result of which they learn to find and use necessary information for their own purposes. In addition, since the child gets the opportunity to transform the "dry" and inexpressive data into practical experience, which may well help him throughout his life.
The essence of the technology of project activities in pre-school is such an organization of the educational process, in which students with desire receive theoretical and practical data, participate in activities of the creative plan, and also solve constantly becoming more complex tasks of the most diverse nature.
Any project must have not only informative, but also pragmatic value. The child should know what specific data he receives, and where he can use them in practice. This is the main thesis of the technology project activities in pre-school. Today, almost all modern educational institutions are trying to adhere to this point of view, who are trying to find a reasonable balance between obtaining practical and theoretical knowledge.
The basis of the method, its stages
The method is based on the idea that any educational activity should be directed solely at the result, the achievement of which should be carried out by the joint work of the children's team and teacher. In this case, all the actors working on a single topic. At the moment, professional teachers identify three main stages in the development of project activities. They represent a special combination of research, creative and problematic methods. Let's look at each stage in more detail.
First step. It implies “imitation and execution”, and the implementation of this method is possible only in the case of working with children of 3.5–5 years. At this stage, the organization of project activities in pre-school presupposes the participation of children “on the sidelines” when they do something either on the direct proposal of an adult teacher, or simply imitate him. It is important that such an approach does not contradict the very nature of the child. The fact is that at this age children have a desire to attract the attention of an adult, to establish good relations with him.
Second phase. This time of development, and the implementation of this method begins with the age of 5-6 years.At this time, children are characterized by the fact that they are already capable of organized independent activity, can provide each other with the necessary assistance at the moment. The child already far less often makes requests to the teacher, tries to more actively establish interaction with his peers. Children already have self-control and self-esteem.
Thus, the organization of project activities in preschool at this stage should take into account that the child can adequately assess and be aware of both his actions and the actions of his peers.
It is worth remembering that they already see and evaluate the problem, are able to clarify the achieved goal, as well as choose the means that optimally contribute to the achievement of the result required by the teacher. The most important circumstance is that they are already capable not only of mechanical discussion of the topics proposed by the teacher, but also of their own projects.
Third stage. This is a time of real creativity, which is typical for children aged 6-7 years. Any method of project activity in preschool educational institutions must necessarily create such learning conditions that will not deter them from solving complex problems.It is necessary to create such conditions under which it would be comfortable for the child to choose topics for their projects, as well as methods and time for working on them.
The specifics of working with preschoolers
What should be characterized by any method of project activity in pre-school? You must clearly understand the fact that in most cases the child has to be “guided”, to facilitate the detection of the problem, and in some cases - to directly contribute to its occurrence. It is important to try to “tighten” the children into some kind of joint venture, but it is extremely important in this case not to overdo the care.
How to start planning a project?
Planning of any project activity must necessarily begin with a discussion and reflection on the following questions: “Why is this work needed at all?”, “Why should it be done?” what form should the product be realized ”...
About the same say, and the requirements of the GEF. Project activity in pre-school is also important because it teaches children to clearly allocate and plan their time.It is important to teach them to distribute the project in a certain time period so that there is enough time left for solving each stage of the problem. At each stage, student-centered technologies should be used, since the abilities of each child may differ significantly from those of their peers.
As it is easy to guess, at the first stage you have to correctly and reasonably choose a suitable topic. What should involve the use of project activities in preschool from the point of view of a teacher? In this case, you need to understand that the in-depth selection of a topic should be carried out only with the child (!). Experienced teachers say that the choice should be preceded by three “golden” questions: “What do I know? What do I want to know in the near future? What is the best way to find out about it? ”
Of course, the themes of project activities in pre-school should be fairly simple and interesting, able to interest each child.
If a teacher is able to organize a proper dialogue with children, then he will contribute not only to the development of their self-esteem, but also their ability to evaluate the data obtained from the point of view of their usefulness in their daily activities.It is important to remember that the implementation of project activities in pre-school educational institutions also contributes to the normal formation of the speech apparatus and language abilities of the child. This is confirmed by speech therapists, who in recent years have recorded a rapid growth in the number of specific problems in this area.
It is necessary to properly organize the process of collecting information: this work must be fascinating, it can not tire the trainees. The teacher or teacher should create conditions in which children would be comfortable and easy to work.
It is important to remember that design and research activities in preschool educational institutions should actively use not only the creative method of knowledge. It is very important experiments in which the child receives invaluable scientific experience, which will probably be useful to him in later life. In general, the uniqueness of the project method lies in the fact that it contributes to the diversified development of the student’s personality: the child becomes an integral, comprehensively developed personality with well-developed self-esteem and the ability to be responsible for all his actions.
As for the motives of research, this should be the discussion of the problematic topic.This not only helps the child to discover new aspects and nuances of the topic that interests him, but also allows him to engage the entire team in the discussion. This is in any case very useful, as the “joint mind” can help in solving really complex problems.
The project activity of the educator of preschool educational institutions ends with the organization of the presentation on the topic covered During this event, the creative potential of each preschooler is perfectly revealed, and all the information that the children received during the work on their project also finds practical application. The task of the educator is that each child can tell about the work done by him, comprehend everything he has done, and also experience pride in his progress.
Extremely important is the fact that children acquire the skills of speaking in front of an audience, as well as master non-verbal communication techniques (specific facial expressions, gestures, etc.).
As the child’s activity increases, the attitude of the caregiver or teacher towards him may change. In general, these are trivial provisions of student-centered learning.They tell that the teacher first plays the role of a teacher and organizer at first, and then as a mentor and spotter who only directs children's aspirations in the right direction.
Average project work plan
It should be noted that most often the creative project activities in pre-school are organized in the framework of specially assigned activities. They have a strictly defined structure and include the following steps: the creation of positive motivation of students, an introduction to the problem and a story about its importance, as well as the development of a phased plan for solving the problem, which is formed in the course of research activities. After this, there is a discussion of the results, the systematization of the data obtained. If possible, children can demonstrate their skills in practice.
The following types of projects can be implemented (by duration): long-term (from one to three years), for several months, for a month, a week (weeks), and also for several days or even a day.
So, let's describe the indirect sequence of work on some task:
- Depending on the needs and abilities of a particular child, the teacher sets the task (after consulting with his or her ward).
- Following the teacher involves students in the process of solving the problem.
- Next you need as much as possible to captivate schoolchildren, and even their parents, the task assigned to them.
- The decision should involve the parent committee and the pedsovet. Project activities in preschool - a public task!
- If there is such a need, you can ask for help from some narrow specialists in this field.
- In addition, the project activity of a teacher in a preschool also presupposes further joint work with parents: together with them it is necessary to make a detailed plan of the event.
- The child himself at this time (using help) collects all the necessary information.
- At the same time, he conducts observations, participates in thematic games and visits necessary excursions.
- The teacher should not forget that at this time children should receive homework.
- It is very important to encourage in every way the independent actions of both the children and their parents, who can search for material through an independent “investigation” in a given area.
- After that, the teacher organizes a project presentation in which the children tell all the information that they were able to obtain and systematize.
- The teacher gives the final speech, if necessary, speaks at the pedagogical council.
Thus, during the implementation of the project, a certain position is formed on a specific issue for each child, children are given the opportunity to open their creative vein, to show everyone their individuality. All this is extremely favorable effect on the development of the child's personality, contributes to the formation of normal self-esteem. Simply put, projects ideally prepare preschoolers for their further education at school and even at a university.