PPSh-41 machine: device and specifications
Many have probably heard such an expression as a "weapon of victory." It is important in the history of the Soviet people. This expression combined all types of weapons that helped our country in defeating the Nazis, and also became real symbols of the Russian soldier. This also includes the T-34 tank, an anti-tank gun, the legendary Katyusha salvo fire and, of course, the Shpagin submachine gun, also known as PPSh 41, an automatic weapon, a device, a drawing and a description of which are given in this text.
From the experience of the war in 1939-1940 between the USSR and Finland and then standing on arming the submachine gun Degtyarev clarified a certain fact. He concluded that the Red Army needed to be equipped with automatic models and to organize, accordingly, their mass production. "PPD-40" and "PPD-38" (Degtyarev submachine guns) were not suitable for such purposes, as they were laborious,and required a considerable number of machine equipment for their production. They also had a shortage of materials and a high cost. To replace the "PPD" it was necessary to develop a new, as cheap as possible and simple submachine gun. This question was an important one.
In 1940, announced a competition for the invention of a new submachine gun. Trials have identified two main rivals. They turned out to be B. G. Shpitalny and G. S. Shpagin. Their models were quite promising. Victory won Shpagin. Its version was adopted on December 21, 1940. Its full name was: “a submachine gun of the Shpagin system of 7.62 mm arr. 1941 (automatic machine "ППШ 41") ". This is a reliable fact.
In the mass production of "PPSh 41" - automatic, device, drawing and description of which are given in the text below, entered in the autumn of 1941. Namely - in the most culminating military period, when the Red Army strongly needed such a weapon. Due to the fact that such a device as the PPSh machine gun had a simple construction, alloy steel and complex special tools were not used, it was launched at many enterprises in the country that had not previously specialized in weapons production.
The bulk of the parts of such a weapon as the PPS automatic machine were made by the method of cold forging using electric and spot welding. The most difficult and expensive part was the drum shop. It was borrowed from the "PPD", to which during the operation there were a lot of complaints. This slightly delayed the release of such weapons as "PPSh" - an automatic machine, the drawings of which are presented for reference below. After modernization, the drum shop was replaced with a sector capacity of 35 rounds, and the corresponding sight was replaced with a throw-over one with a range of 100 and 200 meters. During the war years, about 5.4 million Shpagin submachine guns were fired. Automatics of this weapon works due to the release of the free gate. When firing, the barrel bore was locked with a mass of a free gate, which was pressed by a spring (returnable-combat).The device of the trigger-type mechanism was such that thanks to it it was possible to conduct both single-shot firing and machine gun fire. The removable drum-type magazine was designed for 71 cartridges, as in the Degtyarev submachine gun ("RPD"). The open-type guidance devices consisted of a sector sight andflies. The slider-type fuse is located on the bolt handle. This was an important detail. Also in this case, there was a switch for the fire mode of a slider type.
"PCA" automatic: characteristics tactical and technical
Was produced- 1941-1947
Weight- without a store 3.6 kg., With a curb - 5.3 kg.
Lengthis 843 mm.
Caliber- 7.62 mm.
Cartridge- 7.62 * 25 TT.
Maximum range -400m
Rate of fire- 1000 shots / min.
Sighting rangefrom 200 to 250m.
Score: drum - 71 patron, sector - 35.
Drawings of the machine "PPSH 41"
As already mentioned, they were developed by the Soviet designer G. S. Shpagin. They are depicted in the following photo.
It is a "PPSH" automatic firearms weapon. It is intended for firing bursts and single shots. Works automatic due to the free return of the shutter. This is an important property in this case. In other words, reloading and extraction of the liner occurs after the shot due to the return of the loose bolt. There is a fire from the rear sear, that is, before the shot the shutter is located in the rear end position. Then, after the descent, he goes forward, after that he will send the cartridge.Impalement caps occurs at the time of completion of the last process. During the shot the shutter is not fixed.
Such a scheme is often used in the development of devices such as submachine guns. For example, the Israeli-made Uzi works on a similar principle. With absolute simplicity, such a solution requires the use of a massive-type shutter, which increases the whole mass of the weapon. Above all, a weapon that uses a similar reloading scheme, can shoot due to a strong blow, for example, when falling. If the bolt from the front end (unfixed) position along the guides rolls back from the magazine or from the rear end of the cartridge feed from the strike, it will fall off the stopper.
As in the Degtyarev weapon, such a device as the PPSh machine gun has: a receiver box that is merged with the barrel casing, a free massive bolt, with a fuse on the charging handle, a magazine. He also has a wooden lodge. But with all this, the PPSH-automatic is more technological. In this model, only the barrel needs mechanical machining, and the bolt was manufactured on a lathe with further rough milling.In such weapons as "PCA" (automatic), the production of almost all other metal parts can be stamped. Here the barrel cover has a recoil compensator on its front end. That is, in this case there is a beveled plate with a hole for the passage of the bullet. From her on the sides in the casing there are windows through. They, due to the reactive action of powder gases when fired, significantly reduce the effect of recoil and "tearing" up the barrel. In the sight of this model there are only 2 positions. Namely - 200 and 100 m. "PPSh" since 1942 was not equipped with a disk magazine, but a sector (box-shaped) 35 cartridges.This was dictated by certain conditions. Namely, the fact that disc-type stores were complex and less reliable in production. They also required a specific copy of the fit machine. That is, this item from another of the same "PCA" could not fit. Judging from military photographs, box-type stores in the army have been found only since 1944. Next, the device of the "PCA" machine will be considered in more detail.
Inside this part there is a channel with four grooves. They wind up from left to right.There is also a chamber with a pool entrance. He has a certain bevel in the lower part. This is to set the direction of movement of the cartridge in the chamber.
This trunk contains outside:
- In the front - rounding.This is for protection from nicks.
- Thickened part.For placement in the receiver box.
- Semicircular notch on the thickened part.This is to mount the trunk in the appropriate box.
- Ring protrusion.In order to limit the process of moving the trunk when returning to the place. It also provides a reduction in the perception of shutter hits.
This element is the basis. It contains the following details:
- Namushnik with front sight.
- Latch box receiver.
At the receiver, the front part serves as a casing, and the rear - a cover of the bolt box.
In general, the receiver box consists of:
- The base of the fly for attaching the earphone to it.
- Swivels for attaching a shoulder strap.
- Pads sight.
- Inserts for the direction of the trunk.
- Front inclined plane of the casing. It is a muzzle brake.
- Cut longitudinal on the casing.This is to improve and facilitate air circulation.
- Windows in the muzzle brake to ensure the release of powder gases.
- Cross hole for connecting axis.
- Windows for throwing sleeves.
- Stop spring latch.
- The lower ledge. This is to limit the lowering of the rear region of the receiver.
- Cutouts for the fuse.
- Two side steps (in order to limit the movement of the latch).
- Cutout for the shutter handle.
Latch box receiver
This element consists of the following parts:
The cap has: a hook with an inclined plane; upper semicircular protrusion; 2 side holes to pass the stud; bends, due to which its movement is directed and limited to moving it forward; notch on the back for easy opening.
Spring latch is a kind of detail. It performs a specific function. In this case, it is a short cylindrical twisted spring.
This item has:
- Specific lugs for connection with the receiver.
- Cutout for a shop with a window.
- Vertical groove for the magazine latch.
- Clip for connection with the trigger box and the front part of the box.
- A window for disconnecting.
- The hole for the axis of the magazine latch.
- The window for the sear lever trigger type.
- The oval hole for the protrusion located in the back of the trigger box.
- A window (in order to hook the latch of the receiver).
- A tail with a hole for the corresponding screw.
- Window for rod guide.
You should also be aware that a reflector is attached inside the gate box in its front part. He has a certain rigidity.
The following parts are located on this assembled element:
- Drummer with a wedge.
- Ejector with a spring.
- A safety lock with a spring and a opp.
The shutter itself contains the following details:
- A cup for placing the liner cap.
- Vertical groove for ejector.
- Platoon combat for contact with the sear.
- Longitudinal groove for ejector spring.
- Side notches. They facilitate the movement of the shutter, the collection of dirt and excess lubrication.
- Transverse rear section to prevent the latch of the receiver from striking the cap.
- Channel with a rod for a spring return-combat type.
- The rammer of the cartridge.
- Groove for the passage of the reflector.
- The channel is deaf in the cup for the drummer.
- The groove is transverse with a socket and a recess on the handle to accommodate a fuse with a spring and a socket.
- Transverse channel for a wedge drummer.
Composition of the return mechanism
- Guide pin with matching washer.
- Return and combat spring.
- Shock absorber.
The composition of the trigger mechanism
In this case, the presence of:
- Drummer with a wedge.
- Reciprocating springs.
- The trigger lever with the axle.
- Translator of fire.
- The springs of the above lever.
- The trigger.
- Console translator with the appropriate stud.
- Trigger hook springs.
- Uncoupler with axle.
- Insert the specified hook.
- The grounds of the disconnector.
- Springs nest.
- The trigger box.
Description of the cartridge feed mechanism
Everything is pretty simple here. Submission to the chamber of patrons is provided by the rammer, located in the gate, and the shop, which is borrowed from the "PPD".
Next - a mechanism that locks the stem channel. In this case, there is also nothing complicated. The closure of the stem channel of a weapon such as the PPSh machine gun is carried out at the expense of the slide mass and the clamping force of the spring of the return-combat type.