Nikolay Novikov: biography and photo
Novikov Nikolai Ivanovich - the famous figure of the Russian Enlightenment. His contribution to education is immense. Autocracy, serfdom and all its creatures were disgusting to Novikov. But he saw a way out of arbitrariness and despotism in enlightenment. The main means for solving social issues and human errors lies in knowledge, Nikolay Novikov was sure.
Journalist and enlightener Nikolai Ivanovich Novikov (1744-1818) was born in the family estate near the village of Bronnitsy. For some time he studied at the gymnasium at Moscow University, where he was soon expelled for laziness and absenteeism. Together with him, the future favorite of the empress, Grigory Potemkin, was also expelled from the gymnasium with the same formulation.
Leaving his studies, Novikov goes to military service in the Izmailovo Guards Regiment. The one with the support of whom Catherine II came to power. The Empress did not forget the merits of the faithful regiment and generously distributed awards and grades. Novikov gets the first promotion and immediately retires with the rank of lieutenant. More on public service Novikov does not go.
The main occupation Novikov becomes journalism. Novikov publishes satirical journals, which hotly denounces bribery and abuse of landlord power. But the criticism does not concern the actions of the empress. Magazines had an unprecedented success. They seemed like a breath of freedom and the height of courage.
"Drone", "Wallet", "Painter", "Pustomelya" - publications came out one after another, replacing each other. The curator and editor was Nikolai Novikov (biography and photo above). But he refused from authorship because of his lack of education, which he did not hesitate to openly admit. He said that he was not capable of writing and could benefit only by publishing other people's works.
Novikov's magazine business flourished, they were boldly ironic about lack of education, they ridiculed the manners of society and panache. The price for bold criticism was generous compliments to Catherine. The success of satirical magazines went away with the end of the war. Catherine, having lost all interest in wits, at once closed all satirical magazines.
After the ban on the publication of satirical journals, Nikolai Novikov publishes the first Russian literary encyclopedia - "The Experience of the Historical Dictionary of Russian Writers." This book made a lot of noise.She was perceived as literary criticism and an attempt to arrange the writers according to the “order”. Many felt overlooked.
At the same time, Novikov publishes historical materials. His experience was noticed by the empress, and she ordered all government agencies to provide him with unhindered historical documents. His company has acquired official status. As a result of this project, “Ancient Russian Wifliofika” (library) appeared.
Thus, Novikov laid the foundation for three areas of publishing - encyclopedic dictionaries, publications of historical sources and satirical periodicals.
In 1777, Nikolai Ivanovich Novikov (photo above) begins the publication of the monthly magazine Morning Light, the proceeds of which go to support schools for orphans and children from poor families. At the same time, Novikov became close with the Freemasons, and they were the founders of the Alexander and Catherine schools.
The journal published detailed reports on donations, which he himself promoted. One of the numbers contains an article about how children voluntarily refused breakfast and dinner for a month in order to transfer the savings to more needy people.Masonic connections helped Novikov to combine charity and journalism.
Nikolay Novikov moved to Moscow in 1779. He rents a university printing house, and at the same time, Moscow Gazette. Profit extraction was not the end in itself of Novikov, for him it was important to bring up active and educated people. It is for this purpose that Novikov founded the “scientific community” and started publishing. They translated foreign publications and paid for university talented youth.
Nikolay Novikov distributed his publications in huge quantities and created a reading public. Their editions differed a great variety - from German grammar to Christian literature. Through the efforts of Novikov's entourage, the works of the Fathers of the Church in Russian saw the light.
By 1784, the “academic community” headed by Novikov opened two more printing houses in Moscow. The goal of these people was to educate a generation of people who can transform the country in the future. Nikolay Novikov gathered like-minded people and sponsors around him, so an informal friendly community formed imperceptibly.
Punishment for enlightenment
The activity launched by Novikov attracted a lot of envious people. From time to time the Empress complained about an incident in relation to the printing house. She began to treat this project with growing suspicion. First of all, Catherine despised the Masons. Secondly, it was annoying to some kind of new social life, which is clearly different from what it was before.
The first social organization seemed to Catherine suspicious. The Empress lost her peace and complained to the town governor that she knew how to cope with the Swedes or the Turks, but she wouldn’t mind what to do with the lieutenant. And although there was no political motive in Novikov’s activities, his enlightenment and Freemasonry brought him suspicions of free-thinking.
In 1792, a court investigation was carried out on him and his friends, which revealed nothing. However, Novikov was sentenced to fifteen years and imprisoned in the Shlisselburg fortress. His contemporaries were terrified of the massacre perpetrated by the publisher; no one believed in his conspiratorial activities.
Novikov was released by Pavel I., who replaced Catherine.From the conclusion Nikolai Novikov came out completely defeated, the biography of this noble man was formed in such a way that he no longer engaged in social activities. He spent twenty-two years in his estate and avoided contact with the authorities.
Novikov's pedagogical advice
Novikov paid much attention to the problems of education. He believed that learning should be conducted in such a way that, as a result, children would be happy, educated and helpful. He stressed the importance of the full development of the child. Not limited to typography, Novikov opened a free library and two schools.
In his article on the upbringing of children, Novikov draws attention that it is impossible to drown out the curiosity of a child. It is necessary to pass on to children only proven, well-proven knowledge. Subjects of learning to pick up the child according to the age, only those that he can understand.
Summing up, without exaggeration, we can say that the activities of Nikolai Novikov played an important role in the development of Russian pedagogy, in education and publishing.