Neva Bay, St. Petersburg: description
The history of the formation of the surface topography of the Earth's crust, as a result of which modern geographical objects of the Leningrad Region were formed, goes far back in time. Scientists investigated and identified the main processes that led to the formation of just such a landscape, which we now see, and those natural monuments, which have remained for a long time as a reminder of the distant past of the region.
A long time ago...
According to the data presented in the books of A. V. Darinsky, billions of years ago there were many volcanoes on the territory of St. Petersburg and the Leningrad Region. Magma erupting from them, draining, layering and freezing, gradually formed a folded platform. The irregularity of the faults in the surface of the earth's crust and the creep of its fragments on each other with quite frequent earthquakes aggravated. Later, it was affected by a variety of microorganisms. The surface was exposed to weathering.
As a result, the folds smoothed out, and a surface appeared, which scientists called a hilly plain. The hollows between the hills filled with water, forming the ancient sea. It moved namyvaya sedimentary covers. Then began the era of the Great Glaciation. On the territory of the modern Leningrad region there was also a glacier. He moved and, then advancing, now retreating, corrected the relief of the surface of the earth's crust.
After the melting of the glacier in the north-west of Russia, an ancient sea was formed, which is called the Litarin Sea (a distant ancestor of the Baltic Sea). Over time, formed the coastline of the sea, it changed the shape and size. Appeared bays. The processes were associated with the evaporation of water in the smallest areas. Thus, one of the bays was separated into a separate lake, to which historians gave the name Nebo (new water). And the ancient sea is called the Ancient Baltic.
As a result of the same processes, river channels were also formed, for example, Mga, Tosny and Izhora. Only their mouths then were: Mgi - Lake Nebo, Tosny and Izhora - Ancient Baltic Sea. Only after a flood in the lake occurred on the Karelian Isthmus between these two bodies of water, the channels of the Neva, Mga, Tosna and Izhora began to fall into it.
This is how the Ancient Baltic Sea was called at the time when the most ancient way "from the Varangians to the Greeks" went to the Black Sea trading ships, among which were many Varangian. Later it will be called habitually - the Baltic.
The Baltic Sea is an inland water body in Northwest Russia. The straits system is connected with the North Sea, through which opens access to the Atlantic Ocean. The most famous of them - Skagerrak and Kattegat. The Baltic Sea has an elongated shape. The widest part of it is located between St. Petersburg and Stockholm. On a very long coastline there are many bays, bays, fjords, skerries. There are three large gulfs in the region of the Leningrad Region and adjacent lands: the Bothnian, the Riga and the Finnish. The smallest place in the Gulf of Finland is the Neva Bay. It was and is important in the development and history of St. Petersburg.
Neva Bay: the concept
The coastline of the Gulf of Finland stretches along Finland and partially Russian territories. In the northeast of the bay there is a rather small part of it, which has another name - Markizova puddle.The origin of this name is associated with the title of the French aristocrat Marquis de Traversay, minister and commander of the Russian fleet during the reign of Catherine II, Paul I and Alexander I. Exercises were conducted here at Traverse. And navigation was carried out no further than Kronstadt. So this epithet has an ironic meaning.
The structure and features of the Neva Bay
Neva flows into the Neva Bay. Its depth is only 3-4 meters. The average depth of the sea is 51 m, and the Gulf of Finland - 38 m. The length of the lip reaches 21 m. The coast of the Neva Bay is strongly indented. At the very Neva mouth is its smallest part - the sand bar Nevsky Bar. It is this feature of the Neva Bay made it possible to begin construction of the Kronstadt fortress, the first structure of which was the fort Kronslot, built just on the shoals of the Neva Bay. And from the island of Kronshlot, four fairways (two navigable) were dug under Peter I, and the Marine Navigation Channel was built later.
The large vessels could not go to the mouth of the Neva in shallow water from Kronstadt to Petersburg and back. In order to transport goods along the Neva Bay (St. Petersburg), flat-bottomed lighter vessels were used, and special barns were built on the Neva Islands.Such islands with warehouses for handling and storing goods were called buyans.
In addition to the loadings for the growth of cargo turnover and the throughput of larger ships, even under Peter I, four canal channels stretched along the bottom of the Neva Bay from Kotlin to Neva; to Malaya Nevka, Rowing - to Malaya Neva, Korabelny (main shipping channel) - to Bolshaya Neva. Most of the fairways to navigate were poorly adapted, and even the most successful ship was very tortuous, very shallow and had large places of narrowing along its length.
The question of the convenient entry of ships into the deep and navigable Neva through shallow water was resolved by the construction of the Sea Canal, which was direct and led to Gutuyev Island. The original idea of its construction belonged to Peter I. To the idea of the need to create returned in the future only under the rule of Alexander II. The project was developed by the famous engineer and breeder Nikolai Ivanovich Putilov, finalized by engineer I. A. Zarzhetsky.
The time spent on the construction of the channel was quite small - 8 years. The first part of the channel passed from the mouth of the Neva near the island of Gutuev to the Small Kronstadt raid, the second part, branching out from the main channel, stretched to the river Ekaterinburgofka. Thanks to the opening of the Sea Canal from the end of the 19th century, all the merchant ships could enter the port of Gutuev Island without entering the Kronstadt Merchant Harbor.
Merchant harbor of Kronstadt
The smallest place of the Neva Bay, along with the Nevsky Bar, stretches from the mouth of the Neva to the Kotlin Island, where the Kronstadt shipyard was founded and actively developed in the 18th century and the Kronstadt port was founded.
The entire cargo turnover of Russia in the north-east direction passed through it, and also navigable routes ran through which civil and military vessels went. The most famous port harbor was the Merchant. It was founded and equipped at the very beginning of the history of St. Petersburg - in 1709. The founder of the harbor is the famous admiral of the time of Peter Cornelius Cruys. At Cruises, additional facilities were constructed that contributed to its active functioning - the pier, the Sea Channel, moorings and docks, as well as the wooden Fish Rows.
The harbor served as a shelter for deep-set (over 2 m) ships, which not only unloaded and loaded in the port, but also stood here at the docks all winter with the sails dismantled.