Neuron. What is an axon?

poorly understood, but people already have knowledge of the structure of nerve cells - neurons. The constant component of each neuron is a process - axon. The word "axon" comes from the ancient Greek "axis". It is on this axis that the transmission of pulses between neurons.

What is an axon?

An axon is a long thin projection of a nerve cell in vertebrates that conducts electrical impulses. The function of the axon is to transmit information to various neurons, muscles and glands. Axon dysfunction causes many neurological disorders.

Communication between neurons

It is necessary to distinguish between what axon and dendrite are, since both of them are representatives of cytoplasmic protrusions from the neuron cell body. Axons differ from dendrites by several features, including shape (dendrites often taper, and axons usually maintain a constant diameter), length (axons can be much longer) and functions (dendrites receive signals, whereas axons transmit them). Some types of neurons do not have axons, and in some types, axons can originate from dendrites.A neuron never has more than one axon, however, in invertebrate insects, the axon sometimes consists of several areas that function independently of one another.


Axolem - axon membrane shelter, which for the consists of myelinated fiber. The cytoplasm of the axon is called axoplasm. It is through it that the substances necessary for vital activity enter the neurons. Most axons have a large number of branches to come into contact with other cells, usually with other neurons, but sometimes with muscles or glands. The junctions are called synapses. In some cases, the axon of one neuron can form a synapse with the dendrites of the same neuron, which leads to a break.

What is an axon and what role does it play in the body? One axon, with all its branches assembled together, can innervate several parts of the brain and generate thousands of synaptic endings. The axon bundle forms the nerve canal in the central nervous system and the bundle in the peripheral nervous system.

Axon in a pulse transmission system

This article will help you understand what an axon is and learn about its functions, but this information is only superficial and basic.

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