Microsporia in humans. Treatment of microsporia in humans
Microsporia in humans is a fairly common disease, although it is commonly called lichen in the people. Both children and adults are subject to this ailment. That is why today the questions of what constitutes a given disease, why it occurs and what symptoms are accompanied are becoming relevant. After all, the sooner the patient is given treatment, the higher the chance of a quick and successful recovery.
What is microsporia?
Microsporia in humans is an infectious disease. Moreover, the cause of its development is the ingestion of fungi belonging to the genus Microsporum, which, in fact, explains its name.
This fungal infection is highly contagious. That is why microsporia in children is a phenomenon so widespread, because young patients rarely carefully monitor their personal hygiene. This disease is characterized by seasonality - the peaks of the incidence occur in the summer and autumn, but in the winter time the number of patients with a similar diagnosis decreases.
The main causes and mechanisms of the disease
It is believed that microsporia in humans is one of the most common diseases, which is inferior in terms of the number of infected except that the fungal infections of the skin of the feet. Immediately after contact with the skin, the fungal microorganism quickly penetrates the tissues and begins to actively proliferate.
The microsporia pathogen most often affects the skin tissue as well as the scalp. Spores of the fungus are able to grow deep into the hair follicles. From here, the infection quickly spreads along the entire length of the hair, destroying the cuticle - under the scales fungal spores begin to accumulate.
How is infection transmitted?
Today, many are interested in the question of how microsporia is transmitted in humans. In fact, the main source of infection is a sick person or an infected animal. In most cases, the peddler of the infection is a sick dog or cat. By the way, this is why children get sick more often than adults, because most babies just love playing with animals, but not everyone remembers washing their hands after a game.
Often, a sick cat or dog may notice the main signs of microsporia. In particular, partial baldness on the face, paws, and sometimes auricles can be attributed to the symptoms of the disease. On the other hand, in some animals, external signs may be absent.
Microsporia in humans can be transmitted in a household way. Spores tend to accumulate under skin scales. Once in the external environment, they can retain the ability to live for another 1-3 months. That is why it is possible to pick up the fungus when sharing bed linen, towels, toys, hairbrushes and other everyday items.
Skin microsporia: main symptoms
What are the signs? What does microsporia look like? Its symptoms are quite characteristic. The incubation period in most cases lasts from five to seven days. First, a reddish stain appears on the surface of the skin where the pathogen has penetrated. It has fairly clear boundaries and increases in size as the disease progresses. Gradually, a roller is formed at the edges of the spot, which rises above the surface of the skin.The tissues inside turn pale, with the result that the center of inflammation takes on the appearance of a ring. The skin here begins to peel off. As for the subjective sensations, patients in most cases complain of itching in the affected area, although it is not too strong.
More will tell about such ailment as microsporia, photo. A person usually appears 1-3 such lesions. If untreated, the spots can increase greatly, affecting all large areas of the skin. In women and children, the lesions are often very inflamed. By the way, most often the fungus affects the skin of the neck, chest and shoulders.
Deprive the scalp
Microsporia of the scalp often affects children between the ages of five and twelve. On the other hand, the probability of its development in a more adult age is also not excluded. As with the defeat of smooth skin areas, first a reddish swollen spot appears. Most often the disease is accompanied by the formation of two foci. They are localized mainly in the temporal areas, as well as on the crown or top of the head.
Spots have clear edges, rising above the surface of the skin. Their diameter is 2–5 centimeters.The skin here begins to peel off intensely. About a week after infection, the immediate damage to the hair begins. At first they become thin, fragile and brittle, and after a while they break and fall out.
The line of fracture of the hair, as a rule, is located at a distance of five centimeters from the scalp. By the way, that is why the people of this type of lichen is called ringworm.
Basic diagnostic methods
How is lichen diagnosed? Microsporia is accompanied by rather characteristic symptoms, so the first suspicions of the presence of such a disease should be experienced by the doctor during the initial examination. However, further research is carried out.
- One of the simplest testing is the luminescent method. Its essence is quite simple. In the dark room, the affected areas are illuminated with a special Wood lamp. Areas of activity of fungi "glow" with a characteristic bright green color.
- Further microscopic examination is carried out. With the defeat of smooth skin on the analysis take scales of dead epithelium, and in diseases of the scalp - hair.In the laboratory, with the help of special optical equipment, specialists, as a rule, manage to detect spores and mycelium of fungi.
- In some cases it is advisable to sow a spore in an artificial nutrient medium. Such a study helps to accurately determine the type of pathogen, as well as find out to which group of drugs it is sensitive.
Treatment of microsporia in humans
When the first symptoms of the disease appear, it is worth contacting a dermatologist. After the diagnosis, the doctor will make a suitable treatment regimen. Treatment of microsporia in humans directly depends on the form and severity of the disease, as well as the characteristics of its course.
Deprive smooth skin areas are usually treated with antifungal ointments. In particular, such drugs as Clotrimazole, Terbinafine, Bifonazole, Cyclopirox, and Iconazole have proven their effectiveness. In addition, areas of skin lesions can be treated with iodine, which acts as an antiseptic and at the same time dries skin tissue. And in the course of treatment may include tar, sulfuric and salicylic ointments, which have antiseptic, anti-inflammatory and regenerating properties.
Treatment for fungal infections of the scalp looks a bit different.Naturally, you need to use the same antifungal drugs for local use. In addition, it is imperative to wash your hair at least twice a week. With a strong spread of the process, doctors recommend temporarily shaving the hair - this will positively affect the effectiveness of therapeutic procedures.
In more serious cases, systemic treatment is required. Patients are prescribed oral intake of a specific antibiotic Griseofulvina, which is obtained from certain types of mold fungi. In addition, immunomodulatory drugs, including dietary supplements, herbal infusions, multivitamin complexes, etc., can speed up the healing process.
Of course, at the time of treatment the patient must be isolated. Therapy can be carried out both in the hospital and on an outpatient basis. But in any case, it is very important to monitor the cleanliness of the room, not to forget about timely disinfection, to change and wash the bedding, to provide the patient with his own towel, etc.
Are complications possible?
In fact, with proper and timely treatment, microsporia rarely causes any unpleasant consequences.Most often, the occurrence of complications is associated with a lack of therapy and a strong weakening of the immune system.
First of all, alopecia can be attributed to the not very pleasant results of the disease. In addition, bacterial infection is always possible. In such cases, the lesions begin to become very inflamed. As the disease progresses, pustules appear on the skin.
Features of treatment with suppuration
In the presence of strong suppuration, the treatment regimen remains about the same. But patients are also recommended various antiseptic and anti-inflammatory ointments. First, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used. If this therapy does not produce results, the doctor may prescribe hormonal drugs.
In more severe cases, suppuration or the addition of a bacterial infection requires antibiotics.
Basic preventive measures
In fact, with such a disease, prevention is extremely important. After all, if sanitary and hygienic norms are not observed, the probability of rapid spread of infection is high. Naturally, vaccination against such a disease does not exist.That is why it is so important to detect patients in time and isolate them at the time of treatment.
Periodically in children's groups should be examined, especially if one of the children was hospitalized with a similar diagnosis. It is also extremely important to thoroughly disinfect household items where fungus spores can persist (this condition must be observed both at home and in public places). You need to constantly remind the child that you can not play with stray animals. As for pets, in no case should not miss the scheduled visits to the vet.