Luminous Flux is what?
The power of visible light radiation, which is estimated by the sensation of the human eye and measured in lumens, is the light flux. This is the energy that any light source gives.
Energy source of light transmits byemitted electromagnetic waves. The luminous flux is their velocity, which gives information about the power of the glow of a particular source. The energy of light waves is perceived by the human eye in different ways. The wavelength of 0.55 μm in green color is perceived much stronger than in the red with a length of 0.63 μm. In the range of ultraviolet and infrared radiation, our eyes are powerless.
That is why to characterize the lightflow is so important wavelength. Taking into account the susceptibility to the eye, summing the wavelengths, we obtain a normalized value. The luminous flux is the norm of the power of that radiant energy, which is estimated at the expense of a light sensation. Choosing for himself the source of light energy, a person conforms to its equivalent capacity. For example, if you need to replace the incandescent light bulbs. In this case, you need to recalculate the luminous flux.
How to do it
The luminous flux is the main indicator on thisways. With the previous two-volt incandescent lamp, it was equal to 250 lm. Precisely the same light flux of LED lamps can be provided by two to three watts, and luminescent by five to seven. Hence, the benefit of LED lamps is more than obvious.
Let's say we need sources of lightflow capacity of 400 lm. The incandescent lamp should be forty-watt, a fluorescent lamp can have ten to thirteen watts, and a light-emitting diode lamp - only four or five. Or, for example, we need a powerful light flux of lamps - in 2500 lm. The incandescent lamp can not be less than two hundred-watt in this case, the luminescent lamp is only sixty to eighty watts, and the LED even less is only twenty-five or thirty.
What are the lamps
The amount of power consumed by any lampmeasured in watts (watts). In everyday life, for example, LED lamps from one to ten watts are used, and for outdoor lighting they need much more powerful - there are over a hundred watts. But it is necessary to know that the power of the lamp is characterized only by the rate of energy consumption, the concept of the strength of light it does not answer.
Here one can characterize one or anotherThe source is only a unit of luminous flux, which is an absolutely different parameter. It is measured not in watts, but in lumens. Not every lamp manufacturer has these parameters correctly specified. For example, a note on the package: a luminous flux of 280 lumens for a four-watt LED lamp, equivalent to a fifty-incandescent bulb. We look at the table: in the latter, the luminous flux is not at all 280, and all 560 lumens should be. How so?
The unit of lumen output is equal to the flux emitted by an absolutely black body with an area of 0.5305 mm2at a very high temperature - 1773 ° C, with ithardens platinum, for example. The strength of light is the density of the light flux in the spatial sense, it is important to consider how the light flux correlates with the magnitude of the solid angle (and the solid angle is the part of the space where all the rays converge). So: a unit of the power of light is not lumen, but candela.
What is illumination? This can be called the surface density of the light flux, which falls to a surface equal to the ratio of the light flux itself to the size of the illuminated surface, where it is evenly distributed. Illumination also has its own unit of measurement, and this again is not lumen. And not even candela. This suite (lux). What will be one lux, if the luminous flux is equal to one lumen, distributed evenly over an area of one square meter? And here: 1 Лк = 1 Лм / 1м2.
Brightness and luminosity
Light streams can be of different brightness andlightness (luminosity). Brightness is the equality of the surface density of the force of light and its ratio to the area projected by the luminous surface on a plane perpendicular to this direction. The unit of brightness is considered to be one candel per square meter (1 cd / m2).
Luminosity (or luminosity) is the densitythe light flux emitted by the illuminated surface. It is always equal to the light flux relative to the area of this surface. Luminosity also has its own unit, this is 1 lm / m2.
Luminous flux utilization factoris a method that makes it possible to calculate the uniformity of illumination of all surfaces horizontally, regardless of the type of fixtures. Its essence lies in the fact that the coefficient is calculated for each room, taking into account its basic parameters and properties of light reflection of finishing materials. This is a fairly time-consuming calculation, not very accurate, but this method is widely used in the planning of indoor lighting.
The room volume always has some kind of enclosingThe surfaces that will reflect the light flux coming from the sources. This is the walls, ceiling, floor, furniture or equipment in the room. All surfaces have different reflection coefficients, with a higher value or less. Calculate the number of lighting devices, not taking into account the reflected flows, is possible only with large errors.
First choose a lighting system and sourceslight, select the types of fixtures for a particular room - a dwelling or a working room, after which the calculation is made. Its purpose is to determine the number of lamps. The calculation sequence can be performed according to this scheme:
1. Choice of lighting system.
2. Substantiation of the normalization in the illumination of this object.
3. Choosing the most economical light source.
4. Choosing a rational type of lamp.
5. Estimation of the coefficient of margin of illumination and the coefficient of its unevenness.
6. Estimation of the reflection coefficient of surfaces in a room.
7. Calculation of the index of the room.
8. Determination of the coefficient in the use of the light flux.
9. Calculation of the number of lamps that will provide the required illumination of the object.
10. Sketch on the location of luminaires using the plan of the room (specify the dimensions).
It is especially difficult to calculate working lights,because it is often combined. For example, in local workshops only local lighting is prohibited by law. Select the lighting system based on the smallest size of the object of discrimination, that is, guaranteeing the accuracy of all visual works that will be performed indoors.
Here the norms are: The work from the first to the sixth digits is performed only with the combined lighting system. This shop is mechanical, instrumental, assembly and the like. Only in industries such as galvanic or foundries can a general lighting system be used. Therefore, choose the system and the norms of illumination at the same time.
Artificial lighting by quantitative and qualitative indicators is determined in strict accordance with the established and constantly applicable standards for this production and type of work.
Quantitative characteristic of illuminationis taken at the lowest for each working surface, depending on the discharge of visual works, the contrast and the background of the object in the given lighting system. The discharge is determined by the size of the object (part), its part or the minimal defect on it, which the worker will have to detect and distinguish in his activity. Qualitative indicators of illumination are a parameter of blinding and a pulsation coefficient.
Light sources: pros and cons
How to determine the parameters for choosing an economicaland at the same time an environmentally friendly light source? The solution can be influenced by many factors, such as: planning decision, architectural, building parameters, air environment and its condition, economic considerations and, of course, design. The designer who designs lighting, always compromises, considering many parameters in the calculations.
For example, incandescent lamps are not toothey have not very high luminous efficiency, the radiation spectrum is distorted, they become very hot during operation and quickly fail. However, their cost is very low, they are the easiest to operate in operation, and therefore it is quite possible to recommend incandescent lamps for rooms where people temporarily stay, household and so on. Luminescent also have light output simply excellent, long service life, excellent color rendition, no heating. But such lamps are expensive and require professional service. The starting equipment of fluorescent lamps is very complicated, they sometimes flash and rustle, and their utilization is problematic.