Log houses: projects and construction, advantages and disadvantages
Of course, many Russians dream of their own home. And very often, our compatriots choose a rounded log or even just an ordinary log as a material for the construction of a residential building in a country plot. The technology of construction of such structures is relatively simple. To build a house from a log house, if desired, you can do it yourself.
The advantages of buildings built of logs
It is possible to build from this material both ordinary small residential private houses and cottages of two or three floors. The main advantage of such buildings is, of course, a pleasant indoor microclimate. Wood is a material characterized by a low degree of thermal conductivity. In the summer, both in two- or three-storey and in one-story houses from a log house it is cool, and in winter it is warm.
Of course, the advantages of such buildings can be attributed, and their attractive appearance.Even small houses built of logs look solid and presentable. Often, the owners of suburban areas, even residential buildings erected from other materials, are styled as chopped, by lining them with a plastic block house.
Another undoubted advantage of wooden log houses is a long service life. The operation time of such buildings can actually be very long. In Russia, for example, there are still preserved log buildings erected several centuries ago.
Of course, the advantage of chopped buildings is their environmental safety. After all, the log under no circumstances can emit harmful substances into the air.
Disadvantages of chopped houses
The main disadvantage of buildings of this type is, of course, the fact that when living in them it is necessary to strictly observe the fire safety technique. Wood, unfortunately - material is combustible. It is necessary to install furnace equipment and pull wiring in such buildings in compliance with certain rules.
Also, the disadvantages of log houses can be attributed to their relatively high cost.It is advisable to build such buildings only in wooded regions. In the steppe regions of Russia, other materials are usually used for the construction of residential buildings.
The answer to the question of how much a log house costs depends, of course, on its size and layout. For example, for 2018, the total price of a box of such a building with four walls with a ceiling height of 2.5 m and an area of 45 m2built of material with a section of 180 mm, is about 90 thousand p.
The disadvantages of chopped houses, of course, can also be attributed to the instability of their walls to infection with fungus and rotting. Before the construction of log cabins, be sure to treat the log with antiseptic agents.
The project of the house of the log
To build a residential building from a log, as well as from any other material, of course, follows in such a way that it is convenient and safe to live in it later. A landlord who wants to build such a building will need to:
determine the number of residential premises and their location in the building;
choose the safest way to wiring;
decide on the installation methods of various kinds of engineering communications.
By drawing up a project of the house of the log house should be approached with all responsibility. Wiring in chopped houses laid pulling open. Also, most likely, you will have to install both water mains and heating systems. After all, it is not customary to close the beautiful chopped walls of such buildings with any cladding materials. Therefore, the owner of the house from a log will need to decide on methods of masking various kinds of communications.
Sewer pipes and wiring in such a building can be stretched, for example, in decorative boxes. Water pipes usually just pass through the walls. After all, they are mounted in most cases only in the kitchen and in the bathroom. The heating system can be stretched into the floor pie using a saddle connection for radiators.
When drafting the project, among other things, it should be borne in mind that the log houses of wooden houses shrink some time after construction. Materials for the construction of such a building should also be chosen correctly. Only sufficiently dry logs are suitable for building a house. Humidity used for the assembly of log cabins of materials should not exceed 12%.
Calculation of the required amount for the construction of a house of logs should be made with regard to the manner of their connection at the corners. In some cases, the material may need more, others - less.
In contrast to the panel, of the log homes are usually weigh quite a lot. Therefore, the foundations for such buildings in most cases are filled with concrete. You can build a building on the chopped tape based or columnar. The latter type of foundation will be cheaper. But to build a foundation under the house chopped allowed only on a sufficiently robust and reliable ground.
And tape and pier foundation under the building of the timber mounted on the conventional technology. That is, first dig a trench or pit beneath the fill and poured on the bottom of a sandy base. Then assemble the formwork and reinforcement cage installed. Then he poured a concrete foundation in fact.
A feature of the grounds log houses is that their parallel sides make different levels. This is necessary in order to crown the accountant under logs subsequently had no space.
Before the construction of the log house base necessarily be waterproofed. Also on the foundation you need to put the boards. This subsequently will significantly extend the life of the crown.
Building a log house
Houses of this type are usually erected from a log with a cross section of 18-36 cm. In this case, the length of lumber is chosen depending on the size and layout of the building. There are many technologies for the construction of boxes of houses from a log. But the easiest way to do this is the Russian felling. It is this technique that should be used when building a house from a log house with your own hands to a novice.
This technology looks like the construction of log walls as follows:
- Balance crown logs are trimmed to the edge. This allows you to make more convenient laying them on the foundation. The first pair of logs is mounted on the backing boards, and the second - on top of them perpendicular to the connection of the corners method "in the bowl."
- In the logs of the second and subsequent crowns before laying make a semi-circular or triangular groove for a more snug fit to the bottom rows.
- The connections of the logs between the rims are warmed with a linen-jute cloth.To do this, one piece of it is placed on the lower crown, and the second compacted semicircular or triangular groove.
- To connect the crowns with each other, they use pins. To install them in logs, holes are made in 1.5 m increments to a depth of two rims with a partial capture of the third.
Beams of overlapping at construction of the house from a felling are mounted as follows:
- stack the first two logs of the last crown;
- in the logs of the previous crown, which are perpendicular to them, they make nests for beams;
- the beams themselves are laid;
- in the two remaining logs of the last crown, grooves are made, but from below;
- set them in place on top of the beams.
At the final stage, the beams are sheathed with a board on top.
Installation of the roof: what you need to know
If well-dried materials were used to build a house from a log house, you can start setting up its roof right away. If the log was applied wet, the box should be left to stand and sit for at least six months.
Most often, log houses with a conventional double-slope roof are erected in suburban areas.But sometimes the owners of country plots build houses of log houses with a loft. In this case, the roof of the building may be a broken slope or hip. Mnogochyptsovye, difficult in the design of the roof are built on such boxes. In any case, the truss legs when assembling the roof of such a building should be mounted using special sled fasteners. This prevents the occurrence of distortions of the roof frame when walls shrink.
The choice of material for roofing
The rest of the assembly of the roof of a chopped house of any kind is produced by standard technology. For covering the roof of such a building, it is allowed to use any materials - ondulin, metal tile, etc. A very good solution would also be to cover the roof of a chopped house and wooden shingles. In this case, the building will look as harmonious as possible.
The final stage
A feature of the construction of chopped houses is, among other things, the fact that after the construction is completed, they also have to caulk. The first time this procedure is performed after the assembly of the log house, in the second - after shrinkage. Caulk wooden buildings using moss or tow.These materials are simply hammered between the rims with a caulk and a hammer.