Local network installation: step-by-step instructions, planning and features
For one reason or another, a person wants to have something of his own. Home, car ... or local network. Although it may be thought that this is difficult, but do not rush to draw conclusions. Within the framework of the article, the installation of a local network will be considered step-by-step, layout issues are discussed, and also attention will be paid to certain features.
In any local network there are several components:
- Computers that will be merged.
- Connection cable.
- The central device, whose tasks will include data transmission control (communicator) with a twisted pair.
This is the minimum set that is necessary in order to carry out the installation of a local network. If only two computers are combined, the communicator will not be needed. We will consider the design and installation of local area networks based on the star topology. What is this about?
Before you start creating a local network, you must clearly understand where and what will be, what constituent elements we use. As an example, let us assume that we have a wardrobe with a patch panel installed. To connect, you just need to connect the cables to the ports. The central node can be placed in any convenient and suitable place. Now communicators do not take up much space, so there will be no problems with this. So, we have the place and the necessary components.
The quality, the installation and configuration of local networks, and their quality of work will depend on how well we will deal with the future location. Initially, you should take a look at the room where we will place it. For convenience, you can draw a plan on a regular sheet of paper. It should be noted the location of computers, printers, users. Perhaps there will be a desire to change something somewhere.
Then select the location where the switch will be located. In this case, you need to make sure that it is located no further than 90 meters from the most distant computer along the line of the wire.Why so? The fact is that if the distance is more than 100 meters, the signal going through the twisted pair will attenuate, and in order to avoid this, you will have to use repeaters.
It is advisable to place the switch near an electrical outlet (but away from users). It is not recommended to hide it behind a cabinet or under a table, because access to it may be necessary at any time. Once you have decided on its location, you need to think about how to route the cable from the switch to each computer. It is recommended that he walk along the walls. If you need to connect several rooms, it is advisable to drill holes with a drill.
To hide it from prying eyes, you can use special boxes. Their use in the creation of small local networks is not mandatory. But still a few words about them can be said.
They differ, as a rule, only in their size. The most voluminous boxes are needed when major highways are laid along corridors. If the installation of a local network is carried out, then the minimum configuration is used.To hide the transitions between different segments, decorative adapters and corners are widely used.
The best option for many is considered to be a height of 40-60 centimeters above the floor. In this case, the cable can easily be hidden by the furniture. Others advocate laying at a height of 5-10 centimeters so that it does not come across at all.
We continue to plan
Before you begin installing local computer networks, you need to calculate the length of the twisted pair cable in meters, which is needed to connect the switch and computers. For this purpose it is better to use a tape measure. It would not be superfluous to throw two or three meters at each distance between the individual computer and the switch for reserve.
If a large-scale installation is planned, then you should know that it is the most profitable for a twisted pair to buy coils, which have 150-300 meters of cable. But this is only if it is needed.
Then you should inspect each computer for the presence of an integrated network card in the motherboard. If it is not there, or somewhere it is faulty, it means you need to purchase and install it. In addition, you need to think about issues with connectors. These are special cables, one of the connectors of which is inserted into the network card and the other into the switch.You should consider its location so that it does not interfere with the work of the user and at the same time performs its functions.
Alas, in this world only cheese in a mousetrap is free. And is no exception to the installation of a local network. Prices for the necessary components, good, do not bite. Or it may be that some elements for the network are already at home. So, when visiting a computer store you need to buy:
- Twisted pair cable. Desirable category 5E.
- Connectors We advise you to pay attention to the RJ-45. It is necessary to make sure that there are two connectors for each computer.
- In case of absence - network cards.
- Crimping tool, with which the cable will be separated and inserted into the connector.
So now we have everything. We begin the installation of equipment for the local network:
- Initially, you must install the purchased network cards in those electronic computers, where they were absent. Do not forget about the drivers. When everything is ready, a performance check follows. To do this, go through the "Device Manager" and see if the card is displayed in the network cards section.If it is not visible, then it is either faulty, incorrectly installed on the motherboard, or disabled in the basic input / output system.
- When everything is decided with the network card, we proceed to crimping the cables.
- After the work is done, you need to connect the network card to the switch.
- We start the technique and check on the physical level whether the network is working.
- If there are no problems, you can confidently begin to customize the operating systems so that all computers can work together.
Believe me, installing and configuring local networks is a simple matter. We have already done the physical part, now let's pay attention to the program component.
Initially, you need to get to the network connections using the "Control Panel". A folder will open. You must select a connection to the local network. Right click. From the menu that comes up, you must select "Properties." Then look for the Internet Protocol (TCP / IP). Choose it and once again click on the properties.
In the window that opens, specify the IP address. It should be in the range of 192.168.xxx.xxx, where instead of x any digit from 0 to 255. But you need to make sure that the IP addresses are unique.Otherwise there will be a conflict, and the network will not work (or you will not have to talk about the correct operation). Click on the "OK" button, and that's it - the configuration of one computer is complete.
Work with a wireless network
If you need to customize the interaction of laptops or netbooks, then they do not have to buy a cable. After all, they can easily work using a wireless network. In this case, it will be even a little easier - you don’t need to think about connectors, cables, and so on. Simply connect and configure remotely - and you can use it. But such an approach is suitable only for a small house, because the wireless signal will be enough for 10-15 meters. Although, if there is extra money, you can set several points. In this case, you can cover any territory with a wireless network.
Appeal to specialists
If there is no desire to tinker with technology, then you can turn to people who earn on the technical illiteracy of the rest of society. Of course, the tariffs for the installation of local networks bite a little, because you have to pay not only equipment, but also the work of a person, his departure.Only one installation of the cabinet on average costs 1.2 thousand rubles.
But the specialist can set everything up quickly and professionally. And the local network will work without problems. To ensure that everything goes without a hitch, you can only advise choosing a person who has a lot of positive feedback and recommendations in the piggy bank.
What to do, everyone chooses himself. Of course, you can invite a specialist. But if you sit yourself and deal with the creation of local networks, you can get a very interesting experience that can be useful somewhere else. In addition, the cost of installing a local network when creating their own hands will be slightly lower than with a call to the wizard. Of course, you will have to travel to the shops yourself, choose the equipment you are interested in, figure out what and how, spend your time. But believe me - this experience is worth it.