King Louis XIII: biography, photos and interesting facts
Louis XIII is one of the most famous kings of France from the Bourbon dynasty. In the story he went under the nickname "Fair".Its internal and in many respects predetermined the development of French statehood for centuries to come. In modern times, King Louis is largely known for his literary image in the works of famous French writers. Books Vigneux and Dumas largely distort the image of Louis and his relationship with the court.
King Louis XIII: Biography
Born on the twenty-seventh of September 1601. His father was the first king of the Bourbon dynasty. Heinrich the Fourth was a Protestant leader and fought for the throne for a long time. Huguenots (Protestants) constituted a religious minority in the kingdom and for a long time did not have a representative in power. Catholics did not want to hear about reconciliation with the "heretics", which led to many bloody wars.As a result, Henry adopted Catholicism and put an end to religious hatred. However, by the age of fifty he still had no heir. In 1600, the richest family in Europe, the Medici, established contact with Heinrich. The king is invited to marry a twenty-four-year-old Mary in exchange for a huge fortune.
In the autumn of the same year, a wedding takes place in Lyon, and after nine months, the spouses have a son, Louis XIII.Maria was not just the submissive wife of an influential man, she was a fairly successful politician. The queen was very beautiful and intelligent. Her strong-willed character pushed Henry and a significant part of the French aristocracy. Maria wove her court intrigues and she herself dreamed of becoming head of state. Louis grew up at court and was a universal favorite. In addition to him, Maria gave birth to five more children.
In the spring of 1610, Heinrich officially crowned his spouse, intending thereafter to set off on a military campaign to Germany. However, on the fourteenth of May a Catholic fanatic kills him. Many in Paris believe that Maria Medici is involved in this conspiracy, but no one dares to publicly challenge her rights to the throne.In view of the minority of Louis, she becomes Regent of France.
Almost immediately after coming to power, Maria completely changes the foreign policy of France. The Queen Mother had a great influence on the political life in the country. Therefore, in historiography during the reign of Louis XIII include his childhood, in which all decisions were made by the Medici. On behalf of the king, Maria concludes an alliance with Spain and finds a pair for her son, Anna of Austria. Many nobles left Paris and began to prepare for war for the throne. However, in 1614 the court was able to conclude an agreement with the rebellious grandees and prevent a rebellion. By this time, Louis XIII had already become involved in public affairs. A year later, the king marries the daughter of Philip III. However, their relationship did not work out. Louis was greatly influenced by his courtiers. Many dukes saw him as an opportunity to rise and happily served the king. A favorite of King Saint-Mar influenced all the decisions of Louis. There were even rumors about the love affair of the favorites with the crown. However, in those days, such rumors were about virtually all monarchs.
Red Cardinal leads the country
Louis XIII fairly quickly studied public affairs and made already personal acquaintances in the nobility environment. However, his mother Maria still remained a strong figure in public policy, and she did not want to give up her position. In a short time, her new favorite, Cardinal Richelieu, appears at court. At this time, France is in great decline. She is threatened by the mighty powers of Europe - Spain and Austria. And inside the courtyard trudging intrigue. Louis XIII and Richelieu do not find a common language and even become enemies.However, the cardinal is a capable politician who can lead the country out of crisis, and the king understands this. Therefore, in 1622, Armand Richelieu becomes the first minister of the king.
Large-scale reforms are beginning in the country, and Richelieu actually usurps power for some time. The Cardinal is preparing for a conflict with Spain, while building up influence within the country. Conducted a program of enhanced centralization of power. Louis XIII glances at all the decisions of his minister. The existence of the Huguenots is largely contrary to the new French policy. Therefore, Richelieu decides to do away with the Gentiles.
The center of the Huguenot opposition was in La Rochelle. In 1627 the English fleet landed there. London is trying to prevent the rise of France as a sea power.Therefore, the British decide to raise the uprising of the Huguenots, led by the Duke of Rogan. The latter agrees and de facto creates his own state in the west of France. King Louis XIII sanctions a military campaign against the opposition, which is led by Richelieu.
By the autumn of 1627 the royal army arrives at La Rochelle. However, the fortress is too well fortified. A long siege begins. The cardinal never hesitates to order the beginning of the assault. At the same time, the siege does not bring any special results, since the city is supported by the British from the sea. Then Richelieu is decided on a very courageous act. Repeating the tactics of Alexander of Macedon, he orders to build a dam to cut off the city from the sea. In the spring of 1628 it was built and difficult times for the besieged began. In the autumn of the same year, La Rochelle was taken by the royal troops and the Huguenot opposition was finished.
The time of Louis XIII was remembered by the almost complete dictatorship of Cardinal Richelieu.The king himself almost did not participate in public affairs, only patronizing his minister. Soon a significant part of the court took up arms against Richelieu. The king's mother, Maria Medici, and some of his brothers were making intrigues against the cardinal and the monarch himself. In 1631, the Cardinal managed to uncover a conspiracy against Louis. The purpose of the rebels was to kill the king and seize power. After that, the king began to trust Richelieu unconditionally, giving him complete freedom of action.
The separation of the mother is replaced for Louis by drawing closer to his wife. For many years they practically did not communicate with each other. The spouses had different favorites and lovers. And only in the thirties between them feelings flared. The queen bore Louis two sons. After the appearance of the heirs of intrigue inside the yard only increased. Richelieu pursued a policy of absolutism. The opposition was ruthlessly eliminated, and tax and religious reform was carried out.
Intrigue against the Cardinal
Many did not like the cardinal and demanded that Louis resign. In the fall of 1930, France led negotiations with German Protestants, intending to support them in a future war with the house of the Habsburgs.This new alliance with the Gentiles decided to use Marie de Medici as a reason for removing Richelieu.On November 11, she publicly opposed the cardinal to the king. And already in the evening celebrated a victory over the old opponent with the supporters. However, Louis, contrary to all expectations, expressed the confidence of Richelieu and ordered the arrest of the "holy party" under the leadership of his mother.
This event finally proved the king’s faith in Richelieu. In fact, the participation of Louis in public affairs and this was limited. The Cardinal took all the power in his hands. The monarch also devoted more and more time to art. He loved dancing, music, and painting. Regularly met with the best artists of the country. To date, several canvases, which depict King Louis XIII. Photos of these paintings are in our article.
Also, Louis was fond of theater. While the Red Cardinal waged wars and suppressed political intrigues, the king wrote songs and invented costumes for his ballets. Even as the first person in France, the monarch personally played in his favorite Marlezonsky ballet.Some people at court considered this irrelevant to the high title of Louis, but no one uttered these thoughts out loud. Therefore, there were always many people at the King’s speeches, and his exits were accompanied by thunderous applause.
End of the board
By 1640, Richelieu had already completely ruled the country. Moreover, he created his "parallel" dynasty. To continue his business, he chose a new cardinal, whom he had been teaching for a long time. In 1642, Richelieu dies. The new cardinal takes control of the country in his hands, with the permission of the king. However, in less than a year, Louis XIII dies. A brief biography of the monarch was recorded by the cardinal himself, but his image is better known to the world from the novels of Dumas the Elder.