Kalashnikov machine gun: specifications and photos. Russian firearms
The Kalashnikov 7.62 mm machine gun appeared in the second half of the twentieth century. The need to create a single machine gun, which could be used as a manual with the help of bipods, machine and tank, has matured in the aftermath of two world wars. Although, strictly speaking, the Wehrmacht had already been the forerunner of such weapons - the MG-34 machine gun. Invented in those years, the Kalashnikov machine gun will become not only the basic weapon in the arsenal of the Soviet and then the Russian army, it will win the favor and trust of the world's leading armies.
The Second World War brought about tectonic shifts in all areas of life. The experience that humanity has received is difficult to overestimate. There was no such scientific or professional field, such type and level of relationship,who would not undergo major changes. And one of the first industries that have undergone major modernization was weapons.
Wehrmacht troops successfully used uniform machine guns in the arsenal of their army, one of which, thanks to its high technical qualities, was called "Hitler's circular". Soviet troops used machine guns, one of which bore the name of a gunsmith from the UK of American origin, Hiram Stevens Maxim. By the end of the war, it was decided to replace the existing arsenal. In 1946 the RP-46 light machine gun entered service. At the same time, technical requirements for a single machine gun were adopted. It is worth noting that the first sketches of such weapons were proposed at the beginning of the second decade of the 20th century by inventor Vladimir Fedorov.
At the same time, an intensive development of a new type of weapon began, under which a rifle cartridge of 7.62 mm caliber could be adapted. One of the prototypes that took part in the competition was a universal machine gun designed by an experienced inventor Georgy Garanin. In 1957 and 1960, two species were presented.The second development was the weapon of an experienced rifle inventor Vasily Degtyarev, which he also introduced in 1957.
Due to a number of drawbacks, in particular, it was impossible to use cartridge tapes of the SGM machine gun in the design, they refused to develop Garanin. Degtyarev’s weapon refinement activities had to be abandoned due to the creator’s death
Designers from Izhevsk
Later, all others had a sample of the development of Mikhail Kalashnikov - the Kalashnikov machine gun. The first tests of professional suitability began only in 1959. The designer, together with his team, joined the competition only at the end of the 50s of the last century. The world-famous gunsmith began his work with a number of experienced designers in Izhevsk. The team decided not to reinvent the wheel and, as a prototype, adopted the Kalashnikov assault rifle, which since 1949 has been famous for its reliability and ease of operation.
The main competitor of the invention was the development of Nikitin and Sokolov, which already in 1956 was represented in working samples. This really spurred the team, and the new Kalashnikov machine gun was created almost in an emergency mode.Nevertheless, the final tests, passed in 1960, showed a rather large preferential lead from the main competitor.
Victory in the final selection of a new type of weapon brought, of course, automatic. Thanks to this prototype, the Kalashnikov machine gun was endowed with sufficient simplicity in incomplete disassembly, in cleaning the nozzle. Moreover, the weapon is completely adapted to the use of standard cartridge tapes. The locking assembly is easily adjustable, which makes the trunks interchangeable. Details on this weapon are more durable, besides, it weighs in general less than three hundred grams. It is extremely important that the new Kalashnikov machine gun is extremely insensitive to water. This property is critically necessary for armored vehicles, which is designed, including to force obstacles on the water.
The new type of firearm entered the army in 1961. In just a few decades, eight modifications were made. Actually the Kalashnikov machine gun itself (with a bipod or two-legged support) was the first of them and wore the designation PC. The easel and armored personnel carriers differ only in the factory configuration, designated as PKS and PKB.
In 1969, they were replaced by a modernized version of the PCM, which differed mainly in that it weighed less. Variations also had a tripod machine and installation on an armored personnel carrier. The machine has also been somewhat modernized, and now it has become possible to carry along in it two boxes of tapes with 200 cartridges. In addition, in 1961, the Kalashnikov tank machine gun, or PKT, was adopted. After 36 years, an upgraded version of the gun was released.
Due to the appropriate conditions of use, the tank version of the machine gun had both a greater weight and a longer barrel. In order for the fighting compartment to be less gassed, the gas outlet unit was slightly modified. Assuming the need to keep the most intense attack out of this type of weapon, the walls of the barrel were made thicker in order to prolong the life of the weapon without replacing it. In addition, the fire salvo is carried out by means of electrostart and on-board network. Thus, on the gun there are no devices that are present in infantry and other variants: a mechanical sight, butt, pistol grip and stop.
In case of lack of communication with the on-board computer, the instrument is equipped with a mechanical descent.
In 1961, the arsenal of the Soviet army was replenished with one more weapon created by Mikhail Kalashnikov. The Kalashnikov light machine-gun replaced the Degtyarev machine gun that was identical only in appearance. Its difference from its prototype was in the elongated stem. This was done to increase the initial speed of the bullet from 30 m / s to 745 m / s. Also, the designer has increased the mass of the barrel, which is intended to make the fire salvo more powerful. The stability of the barrel is provided by fastening a folding bipod to the muzzle of the gun. Sector capacity increased to forty rounds, disc - up to 75 pieces. A salvo from a machine gun reaches a ground target at a distance of 800 meters, an air target - 500 meters.
Kalashnikov light machine gun is used in the armies of at least twenty countries. In addition, in some places the production of copies and versions of the instrument.
It all started with a gun
Mikhail Kalashnikov began his first works on the creation of automatic weapons during the Great Patriotic War. Back in 1942, having been injured, the sergeant and the future master decided to create his own weapon. When working on the first sketches, he, first of all, analyzed his own combat experience, as well as impressions about the weapons of combat colleagues and data from the available poor literature.
The first prototype of a submachine gun he created during the leave of injury. Unfortunately, this sample has not been preserved. From this began his career as a rifle master. He was sent to Alma-Ata, where he created a weapon that we know today as a Kalashnikov submachine gun. The sample was studied by the well-known scientist Anatoly Blagonravov in this field. The response was negative, they refused to accept the weapon, citing the complexity and high cost of the work. In addition, milling work was needed, for which neither time nor resources were available.