Indirect and Direct Taxes
Since the formation of the first states, the first taxes appeared. They could be charged in kind or in cash, but their essence always remained the same: the subject gives the government part of his income to cover state needs. For example, to ensure an army that protects the people,irrigation facilities irrigating fields and feeding the population and so on. Today, taxation has become significantly more complicated, has received new forms and methods, as well as principles aimed at making it as fair as possible (principles of transparency, convenience, proportional taxation methods, and so on). The earliest form of this tribute is the so-called direct taxes. They were paid directly from the income and property of the citizen / citizen. In modern states, taxes are divided into a number of varieties. The main classification divides them into indirect and direct taxes. They, in turn, are divided into further varieties.Thus, direct taxes emit the following: income, property taxes on profits, on mining, with inheritance and donations, and others. Indirect tax arises from the established margins on goods and services of the producing enterprise. At these margins and set the state tax. Thus, the taxpayer pays him to the treasury not himself, but through the purchase of something.
Direct taxes: types
- Income tax. This is the main type of tax. It is calculated in
depending on the income of an individual. This takes into account the amount of its expenses, the relevant legislation, documented. Direct income taxes in the Russian Federation are currently 13% (this is the main, most common rate, although there are other options).
- Profit tax. It is charged from the profit of a commercial organization. Profit in this case is defined as the difference in income from the business of the enterprise and the amount of statutory discounts and deductions (business costs, transportation costs, advertising costs, etc.).
- Property taxes. These are direct taxes, respectively, established on the property of individuals and legal enterprises.
- Inheritance tax.In this case, they are subject to the transferred property from the deceased to the heir. The latter is the payer.
- Gift tax. Similar to the previous view. Tax is levied on transferred property.
- Mineral Extraction Tax. It provides for tax rates on the national wealth extracted from the land: oil, gas, coal, solid condensate and other useful resources of the Russian Federation.
Indirect taxes and their types
They are divided into three types:
- Excise. They are set on high-yield products and are calculated as a percentage of their selling price.
- Customs duties. These taxes are paid at the moment when the goods cross the border during import and export operations. In addition to filling the budget, this tool provides protection and support for the domestic manufacturer.
- Fiscal monopolies. This is the payment of individuals or legal entities for certain state services (the provision of licenses, permits, printing and design of forms, and others).