How to make a roof with your own hands. We make a single-pitch and gable roof yourself
The construction of the roof of the house without the help of professionals saves a lot of money on construction. Properly constructed roof reliably protect the premises from weathering, taking on wind loads and precipitation. From the article you can learn how to make a roof with your own hands according to all the rules.
Which option to choose?
Roofs are of different types and different complexity of manufacturing. The choice of design must meet the goal.
The easiest option. It requires the least labor and materials. Many developers, thinking about how to make a roof, choose a shed for reasons of economy.
Roofs with one slope are built in areas where large wind loads are observed. In this case, the owner deprives himself of the opportunity to create an attic, which can be easily converted into residential premises, using modern materials.In addition, lean-to roofs do not look very attractive. They are usually used for outbuildings and garages. However, there are many beautiful designs of houses with single-roofs. At the same time, one slope can be a separate part of a complex structure with rafters of other shapes and different heights.
When designing a house with a similar roof, the slope of the slope should be in the direction of the prevailing wind direction. The required slope is created by laying out the walls at different heights.
Combining the upper faces of the two slopes and closing the space under them with gables, we get a dual-slope roof. Under it forms an attic, which can be used as a utility room or living space. The design is most common because of its practicality and attractive appearance. It is not difficult to independently figure out how to make a dual-slope roof.
Gables are made closed or with window openings. Slopes are made with the same and different angles of inclination. The erection technology is very simple and does not require a lot of material. Precipitation is easily removed from the roof. Repair does not require significant expenditure of effort and money.
It is a kind of dual-slope, allowing to increase the attic room and make the house attractive. There are many subtleties of how to make a broken roof. Only experts know about them. Independently take into account all the nuances of construction is difficult, and therefore have to turn to them.
The roof can be supplemented with an attic and a mansard, if windows are built into the roof. It has a complex structure, but has high strength. How to make a four-sided roof in all details, only qualified builders know.
Its simplest version is the tavern, which consists of four slopes of the same size, connecting at the top in one point.
Another common design is a hip roof of two triangular and two trapezoidal ramps. She also has no gables.
A kind of dvukhskatny roof - the Dutch (poluvalmovaya). Knowing how to make a double-slope roof, you can easily build a half-hinged roof. At the ends make truncated triangular ramps. At the expense of it the sharp ledges creating the big resistance to wind are eliminated.In windy regions, such houses can be found most often. The presence of the gable makes it possible to establish a vertical window in it. At the same time the roof has a streamlined shape.
Another type of hip construction is the Danish roof (half-gallstone). She has a small pediment under the ridge, allowing you to organize natural lighting attic.
The examples of designs provide the presence of a slope. So how to make a sloping roof for builders easy, many stop on this option. Flat roofs are less common due to the fact that they accumulate more rain. However, modern materials can reliably protect such structures from leaks. Therefore, they are becoming increasingly common as the most economical. At the same time flat roofs can be used as additional platforms.
How to make a gable roof: installing a power plate
The frame of the roof racks, braces and crates is a truss system. It should not rest directly on the walls. Before you make a wooden roof, around the perimeter of the upper part of the wall of the house there is a harness of 50x100 or 100x150 mm (Mauerlat) strapping. It is designed to evenly distribute the weight of the roof and wind loads on the walls of the house.
Mauerlat is fixed with anchors from the inner edge of the wall, and outside it is laid with facing brick, which should not take any load. Anchors are embedded in the masonry at least three rows of brick thickness.
Reinforced reinforced concrete belt can be made under the mauerlat. It is usually poured when the walls are made of lightweight concrete. The timber is laid on a double layer of roofing material.
Installation of floor beams
Before you make a roof with your own hands, you should install the ceiling beams. They need to be pre-dried. They become lighter and stronger. The beams are installed in the nests made in the walls. The step is selected according to the calculation. It must be at least 1 meter. The ends of the bars are treated with an antiseptic, covered with bitumen and waterproofed with two layers of roofing material to protect against rotting. The overlap is closed with temporary boarding to facilitate further installation of the roof.
Floor beams can also be attached to the mauerlat. First, the extreme beams are nailed, and then the others are set along the stretched twine so that their upper sides lie horizontally in the same plane.To do this, cut off part of the surface of the mowerlat.
The step of the beams is adjusted to the rafter step After installing all the long beams from the future gables are put short. As fastener elements for bars, nails for 150 are the most common. It is advisable to use various elements like metal corners, plates, tapes. They significantly strengthen the design, therefore, there is no need for complex wood compounds that require special manufacturing. To facilitate further work, the beams are closed at the top with temporary flooring made of battens.
Installation of ridge beam
On the level on the floor beams, extreme stands are placed under the ridge (board 50x150 mm). Their height is selected on the basis of obtaining a given shape of the roof. Racks are fixed with temporary struts. Between them a string is pulled, intermediate stands are installed with a pitch of about 3 m. A ridge bar is installed and slightly fixed (board 50x200 mm). In the future, the racks will be removed to create a living room on the second floor.
Installation of rafters
The question of how to make a roof with your own hands, for the most part will be decided when the rafters, which are the basis of the whole structure, will be installed. For their installation should make a template.A board is applied to the ridge beam and to the beam, cutting lines are marked. As a result of simple manipulations, a pattern is obtained. But ideally to precisely withstand dimensions is not easy. Therefore, the template is suitable only for cutting the upper part of the "leg" rafter. After that, the workpiece is applied to the beam, markup and cut are made. Thus, the rafters are installed on both sides of the ridge at the gable sites. They are fastened with spacers.
Between the rafters the whole length of the house is stretched with twine. On them all intermediate rafters are established. "Legs" are fixed with metal plates, staples and nails.
The truss system is pre-reinforced with boards nailed to the top so that the structural elements do not move.
All rafters (except the extreme ones) are reinforced with horizontal boards - crossbars and racks. The former can perform the function of ceiling beams, and the latter - the side walls, if the living room is equipped directly under the roof.
How to make a roof gable? It is not very difficult. To create the frame of the gable and sides of the window opening, vertical posts are mounted that are attached to the rafters and beams.Two horizontal boards are nailed to two of them, after which the window opening is finally formed. Then the whole gable is trimmed with a trimmed board (with the exception of the window opening). After that, the entire eaves of the house are sewn.
Making the crate
When laying the roof should be protected from moisture. On this depends the durability of the roof and the effectiveness of the insulation of the house.
Waterproofing roll roll across rafters and secured with a stapler. A counterbribe 20-50 mm high is nailed on it. The latter serves to form a ventilated gap between the roof and the crate. It is fastened with nails in the amount of 10 pcs / m.2. To avoid leakage of precipitation at the attachment points, you should immediately install the crate and roof.
A crate is nailed to the finished counter grill with nails. It can be sparse or solid. The second is always done under the roll roof, soft tile, flat slate, tin. It is always performed around chimneys, viewing windows, skates, valleys, ribs and curtain rails. A gap of 1 cm is left between the bars to compensate for their deformation. Under the ridge nailed boards along the entire length of the roof.At the top of both slopes boards should be installed close to each other.
Under the metal profile, metal tile, wavy slate mounted sparse crate. Bars are attached in increments determined by the length of one element of the roof, so that its edges and middle are always on the batten board. The step width also depends on the thickness and material of the roof. Laying bars produced from the bottom of the rafters.
Metal profiles are fixed from below, from one of the corners. Then put next to the next with an overlap in two waves and with two mounts at the bottom. Thus put the entire bottom row, leveling it on the eaves. Similarly laid out the remaining rows.
How to make a roof of metal? By the same technology. This material is similar to the longitudinal profile with an additional transverse one applied to it.
Everything is easily cut by the grinder, with the exception of shingles, for which it is better to use a knife. Heat insulation material is placed between the rafters. Then it is closed from the inside with a vapor barrier film.
Shed roof construction
An important detail in answering the question of how to make a roof shed, is the lack of attic space.This is due to the fact that the slope has a small angle of inclination, usually not exceeding 25º. A further increase in this indicator is impractical because the angle of wind attack increases. If the roof with a large angle of inclination is properly reinforced, then on the second floor under it can be equipped with an additional living room. In addition, the height of the upper floor can be increased by setting below the floor beams.
There are many good design options with a shed roof. The question of how to properly make the roof of a house includes the technology of building a truss system with a lathing and roof. Let us dwell on this in more detail.
Installing a power plate
Mauerlat is laid, as on the dual-slope roof. It holds the entire structure and must be securely fastened. It is fixed inside the wall with studs or reinforcement, anchors, wire, clamps.
Construction truss system
The question of installing rafters when deciding how to make the correct roof is a major one, since the framework of the structure is formed from these elements. Sloping rafters lean on the low and high walls and are attached to the power plate.For reliable fixation they cut down a triangular notch, which is included in the beam of the mauerlat. This prevents the roof from sliding down. The rigidity of the structure is increased by installing a "scarf" connecting the middle of the rafter with the lower support.
Connections are fastened with nails, staples or a metal corner, and between adjacent rafters at the bottom make inserts from boards installed on the edge.
If the length of the span exceeds 4.5 m, then the skeleton is strengthened with additional struts. If this figure is more than 6 m, vertical racks are installed under the rafters, resting on the floor beams. In this way a lean-to farm is formed. With an insufficient cross-section of the beam, the truss rests on additional supports, which can be internal walls. Stiffness truss system provide runs.
Rafters from the underside can be attached to the transverse beams that are placed on the walls. They protrude outside the house up to 1 m, creating an overhang that protects against precipitation.
Mounting lathing and coating
As for the other roofs, the crate may be solid or at intervals. It depends on what will be the roof.Solid crate spread sheets waterproof plywood or oriented strand board. Sparse lathing is made from bars or unedged boards. From above it is covered with a waterproofing film (with overlapping of cloths by 15 cm), and from below - with a vapor barrier. Fixing cloths convenient to produce construction stapler. If insulation of the roof is made, then the insulation from the bottom of the lathing will first be laid, and then it is closed from the inside with vapor barrier.
Shed constructions are chosen mostly for the garage, veranda, and terrace. If there is a question about how to make a roof on an extension, then you should first consider exactly this option.
Erection of hipped roof
This requires a project with exact dimensions and a detailed description of all connections and elements. It will require more materials than other types of roofs. Savings aimed at reducing the angle of inclination of the roof, leads to the need to strengthen the frame, as the snow load increases. Only accurate calculations will make it possible to create a roof, not only attractive in appearance, but also of high quality.
The uniformity of the load on the building depends on the design of the truss system. The latter, in turn, is selected based on the characteristics of the walls of the house. Rafters are hanging and inclined.
Rafters find support in two places, which are usually the walls of the building. On the latter is transmitted arching force in horizontal directions. Its reduction is achieved by installing jumpers between the "legs". If these elements are located at the very base of the rafters, then they are essentially beams of overlap.
Such a solution is popular because the attic room remains free. If such a system is placed higher, then it will provide only weatherization.
Inclined rafter system
The design provides for the presence of additional supports. Accordingly, the rafters will be based on them by the middle part. The lower ends abut the mauerlat, located on the outer bearing walls.
This design is lighter, less expensive and more durable.
Features hip roof design
The rafter roof system has triangles at the base, giving it a high rigidity.It more evenly loads the roof over all four walls. The gable roof transfers the main load to two long walls. Additional uniformity of the load is also provided by the rack system that holds the rafters.
The construction of the roof begins with the installation of the ridge span and racks. The latter are mounted on beams located across the house. Then diagonal rafters are placed, which must protrude 40-50 cm behind the walls of the house in order to create a visor and protect the dwelling from precipitation. After that mount intermediate rafters (central and angular).
Ordinary roofing materials are suitable as coatings for hip constructions: sheeting, metal tile, soft tile. For each type, the angle of inclination of the roof must be taken into account in order to foresee what snow load is permissible for it. For example, before you make a roof of corrugated board, it is necessary to determine the angle of inclination, which should be at least 12º. In this case, the joints are sealed.
Modern technologies allow to erect roofing of any level of complexity. Having learned the general rules of how to make a roof with your own hands, you should choose the appropriate options taking into account the climate, the building structure, the availability of funds and the preferences of the developer.
Savings on construction should be rational, since the roof is not only protection from climatic phenomena, but also the decoration of the facade, and a means of preserving heat.
Independently erected classic versions of the roof. How to make the right roof, starting with a more complex four-sided, should be solved by professionals, since only they know all the details of technology.
All modern roofing should be erected with steam, water and heat insulation. This will significantly increase their service life.