How to grow potatoes? Care, hilling, watering, fertilizer
Potatoes are grown in almost every garden. On the technology of care for him probably knows the majority of summer residents. In principle, there is nothing difficult in this matter. However, those gardeners who have recently received or bought land plots often make mistakes, as a result of which the yield of this crop decreases. Therefore, in the article we will understand how to grow potatoes properly. Perhaps the information below will allow someone to achieve the best results in this matter.
Where to begin?
It will be good to grow and develop potatoes only on condition of proper selection of planting material. It is best to acquire a variety adapted to the climatic conditions of this particular region. It is also advisable to buy both varieties of potatoes - early and late. The first can be undermined in the summer. Late potatoes are easy to keep in the cellar,basement or even on the glazed loggia until spring.
How to prepare planting material
Many, even experienced gardeners, often skip this step. And absolutely nothing. Preliminary preparation of planting material can significantly increase the yield. Potatoes (tubers) can be processed:
- Growth stimulants. You can buy these drugs in a specialty store. The composition of these funds include all sorts of trace elements, accelerating the "awakening" of the eyes. For example, stimulants such as Heteroauxin and Kornevin are very popular among summer residents. It is also useful to sprinkle the tubers with ashes.
- Means to prevent the development of diseases. You can use, for example, a solution of copper sulfate (0.2%). Tubers in it lower no more than for a couple of minutes. You can also apply a solution of boric acid (0.1%).
- Drugs that protect plants from pests. Not bad means from this group are considered "Maxim", "Force" and "Prestige". The last drug, by the way, is often the processing of potato tubers from the Colorado potato beetle.
Also, before planting, the tubers should be germinated.For this, they are laid out on the ground or in a well-ventilated room and kept for a couple of weeks.
The question of how to grow good potatoes is reduced, among other things, to the proper preparation of the site. You need to dig up the allotment about half a month before landing. During this time, the earth will settle and warm up well. It is possible to dig up the soil either manually - on a spade bayonet, or using special equipment. In our time, motorcycle racks are not too expensive and at the same time they are able to significantly reduce the physical costs of the owners of the suburban area. Learning to use modern models is not difficult even for an inexperienced summer resident.
Difficulties for a beginner can occur only when passing the first row. The plow will go a little to the right, and the smoothness of the furrow will have to be carefully monitored. Then one of the wheels of the plow will follow the track and it will become easier to plow.
On virgin soil, you may have to put on twice. Dense ground motorbike may simply not take. Therefore, the land is first plowed by 10-15 centimeters. In the second pass, loosening is performed to the required depth (20 cm). The roots of weeds, at least large, should be removed from the soil.Subsequently, this will facilitate such an exercise, as weeding potatoes.
After the land and tubers are prepared, you can proceed with the actual planting. The timing of this operation depends on the region in which the site is located. In central Russia, summer residents, depending on the weather, plant potatoes, usually in late April - early May. In any case, the air temperature on the street should already reach at least +13 degrees.
How to plant?
If the plowing of the land for this crop in our time is done by the majority of summer residents using the motor-plow, the landing is usually done manually. Physically, this work is not particularly difficult. Landing is better together. One person will dig holes (also on shovels bayonet), and the second will lay tubers in them. The holes are dug in rows, the distance between which should be about 50 centimeters. Every summer resident, who once studied how to grow a potato crop, knows this. A rare planting will allow the plants to develop a powerful root system with a large number of tubers. Between the holes should also leave a distance of approximately 50 centimeters.More often, potatoes can be planted only if the land on the plot is very fertile and it is supposed to be watered well.
What you need to know
When planting potatoes should be fertilized at the same time. To do this, a couple of handfuls of well-rotted manure and a little ash are poured into the hole first, and then a tuber is placed (or two if they are small). You can also fertilize potatoes when planting very finely chopped bark of trees. You can take material from both hardwood and coniferous. The bark in any case will contain a huge amount of the most different microelements useful for potatoes. Sometimes one or two beans are thrown into the wells. This plant is able to scare some harmful insects. However, with this method, weeding the potatoes later may be somewhat difficult. After all, when performing this operation, you will have to make sure not to cut the beans.
How to care?
So now let's talk about how to grow potatoes after planting. After the plants rise above the ground to a height of 10-15 centimeters, we will need to weed them. This should be done with a small hoe and very carefully, so as not to damage the young shoots. At the same time, you can slightly spud the plants.This will save them from possible night frosts.
The second hilling of potatoes is made after it grows to 20 cm and buds begin to appear. Earth picked up hoe and sprinkled on the stalks of plants. Hilling increases the yield of potatoes by about 30%. The fact is that after carrying out this procedure on the stem, which appeared underground, additional roots with nodules begin to grow.
The biggest problem in growing potatoes can be, of course, the Colorado potato beetle. In order to get rid of this pest, the bushes are treated with special solutions.
The Colorado potato beetle hibernates under the ground at a depth of 30 cm. Once it gets warmer outside, it begins to surface and lay eggs. This process is quite long and can last about two months.
The first small larvae begin to hatch during the period of plant budding. At this time, and should begin processing potatoes. It is rather difficult to advise any specific purchased product. The fact is that the Colorado potato beetle rather quickly adapts to any chemicals.There are many tools to combat it, and they should be changed periodically.
You can also use the popular methods of dealing with the Colorado potato beetle. Very dislikes this pest, for example, the usual ash. She needs to sprinkle the potato leaves. Also, a strong infusion of wormwood is often used against the Colorado potato beetle (200 g of crushed leaves per 1 cup of ash and 5 liters of hot water).
According to the rules, the soil should be moistened on a plot about once a week. However, the area under this culture is usually allocated quite large, and, therefore, frequent watering in some cases become impossible, for example, due to lack of water. Therefore, many owners of suburban areas produce this procedure once or twice a month.
In any case, watering potatoes is a must. Especially in dry years. This can significantly increase the yield.
For watering is usually used pump installed in the well or kopanku. Water is supplied through pipes and hoses to special sprinklers, either placed over the entire area of the site, or periodically rearranged.
Especially well be watered early potato varieties. The vegetation period in plants of this group is rather short, and all processes in the tissues occur in an accelerated mode. And therefore, such a potato needs a large amount of nutrients, which, as is known, come only from pre-moistened soil.
Top dressing potatoes
Since the culture usually occupies large areas on the site, it is often not fed at all. If plants are planted in very fertile soil, there really isn’t much need. Especially since manure is usually filled in the wells during planting. However, if the soil is poor, it is still worth a little to improve it by fertilizing.
In the summer, the feeding of potatoes is also made most often with manure. Use to improve the nutritional properties of the earth can only well rotted. He must lie in the heap for at least a year, otherwise the roots of potatoes may be damaged by heat. In addition, not too well, rotted manure affects the taste of tubers.
Also a good solution would be to fertilize potatoes with compost. You can add a small amount of high peat to it.Both manure and compost are simply poured under bushes before watering.
Another type of fertilizer is bird droppings. It is diluted in water in the proportion of 1x10 and watered area at the rate of 2 liters per plant.
Used for feeding potatoes and mineral fertilizers. For example, such as nitroammofoska and ammonium nitrate. However, for the correct calculation of the required number of them you need to know the chemical composition of the soil.
Recently, a special technology of growing potatoes has become quite popular - in barrels or bags. This method is called vertical, and with its use you can get very good yields. Next, let's see how to grow potatoes using this modern technique.
You need to make a big bag of very thick polyethylene or polypropylene (from under flour or sugar). It must be filled with well-fertilized soil to a height of 10 centimeters and set in some sunny place. The sides can be twisted.
Next, several healthy tubers are planted in the ground with their eyes up and watered. After the stems grow to a height, produce hilling potatoes.When the plants rise another 10 centimeters, the procedure is repeated. So do until the bag is not filled with soil to the top. In the autumn it is simply cut and harvested tubers.
This technique can be used including those who do not have a country site. Bags in this case are simply installed on the loggia or balcony.
After the potatoes are dug, most of it is removed for storage in a cool place. Usually gardeners use a cellar for this purpose. Tubers should be laid in trellised boxes. You can take plastic or wood. Pre-tubers for about 6-12 hours dried. Usually, the dug potatoes are poured right on the ground in a well-ventilated place. When laying in the boxes it is sorted by size.
Some of the best, healthy tubers should be selected for seed. They are stored in separate boxes. Seed potatoes should not be too big. Best suited tubers the size of a little larger than a chicken egg.
As you can see, there is nothing too complicated about how to grow potatoes. The most important thing is to weed, spud and water it in time.In this case, you can certainly get a good harvest.