History of Ancient Russia: Briefly about Vladimir Monomakh
One of the most significant characters in the history of the Russian state, Vladimir Monomakh, refers to those individuals about whose life and activities there is enough important evidence. Therefore, it is very difficult to talk briefly about Vladimir Monomakh. But let's try to do it.
The personality of Vladimir Monomakh
Briefly from the biography. Vladimir Vsevolodovich - the son of Prince of Kiev Vsevolod Yaroslavich. At baptism he received the name of Vasily. The nickname Monomah stuck with him because of a relationship with the emperor Konstantin Monomakh (he was his own grandson). Vladimir's mother was Anna, a Byzantine princess.
Vladimir Vsevolodovich was an educated and intelligent man, a talented writer. A far-sighted politician, a wise ruler and legislator, a brave and experienced warrior. An honest and fair person. He was an ardent opponent of internecine wars and oppression of the poor. Ratat for the union of ancient Russia.
How Vladimir Monomakh came to power
The beginning of the XI century.was characterized by the change of the external enemy: instead of the Pechenegs driven away from the borders of the state, the Polovtsi began to cause great trouble to the Russian lands. Being, like the Pechenegs, nomads, they moved beautifully on horseback, owned bows and arrows, spears and lassoons. Their onslaught was swift, powerful and accompanied by an awesome cry. Quickly disappearing after the raid, they took with them a huge number of prisoners and left the ruins on the site of settlements and burned arable land.
The first foray into Russia of the Polovtsy detachments was opposed by the united squad of Yaroslavichi. However, the battle on the Alta River by Russian soldiers was lost. A Kiev prince Izyaslav Yaroslavich refused to continue the war, citing personal reasons as arguments. Such a decision of the prince has caused discontent and rebellion of Kiev. Izyaslav was forced to flee to Poland, where he gathered a strong army and returned to Kiev, accompanied by him. But soon he was banished again. Already finally.
After the death of the last son of Yaroslav the Wise, the Kiev throne was received by the son of Izyaslav Svyatopolk, to whom he relied by right of seniority.When he died, the people of Kiev called Vladimir Vsevolodovich, respected by them, by the time he was 60 years old.
Briefly about the reign of Vladimir Monomakh: foreign policy
During the reign of Vladimir Monomakh, the main efforts of Kiev’s foreign policy were aimed at fighting the Polovtsy and resolving issues with Byzantium. Solving the first task, the prince acted not only as a warrior and commander, but also as a successful diplomat: about 20 times he personally concluded lucrative treaties with the Polovtsy. In addition, Monomakh also considered active military actions in the form of raids into Polovtsian lands, as well as agitation in the camp of the enemy.
As for the second task, he led successful joint military operations with the empire, becoming an ally of Emperor Diogenes. Help in this was the decision to marry him his daughter Maria.
"Charter of Vladimir Vsevolodovich" as an important legislative act
This document was created in the first years of the reign of the prince on the Kiev throne. Vladimir Monomakh briefly, but succinctly, outlined in it the main positions related to changes in the internal policy of the state. With his help, he wanted to stop the internecine enmity.For the slightest disobedience followed a serious punishment. And Monomakh made his sons appanage princes in Novgorod, Smolensk, Rostov and Suzdal.
In addition, an important aspect of the Charter was associated with the relief of the lives of various types of debtors, and also it limited the usurers' power over them and their arbitrariness. According to the Charter, usurers could not determine the percentage of the loan to more than 20%. The debtors who worked off the person who gave them money in debt had the right to leave the lender in order to earn this money elsewhere and give it to him. The statute did not allow free people to be enslaved for debts.
So, in this article we briefly learned about Vladimir Monomakh from the most important areas of his foreign and domestic policy.