Geographical, climatic, social features, population. Finland as it is
Any country is characterized by features inherent only to it, be it a geographical location, flora or fauna, economy, national customs or population. Finland is no exception. It is located between 70 and 64 degrees north latitude in the eastern hemisphere, it belongs to the countries of Northern Europe, and is one of the greatest European countries: its area is almost 339 thousand km2. The length of its borders is 3680 km. There is only one country north of Finland - Iceland. Almost a third of Finnish territory is beyond the boundaries of the Arctic Circle.
Finland is part of the European Union and is its external border. The capital of the country is the city of Helsinki.
The relief of Finland, formed largely under the influence of glaciers that covered Northern Europe,mostly flat or hilly. The highest point is located on the border with Norway - the top of Mount Hulti, which is 1329 meters high.
Like no other country, Finland is rich in water resources, and is second only to Canada in terms of the number of freshwater lakes (Finland has more than 187,000). The appearance of lakes in such numbers was the result of melting glaciers.
Although the Republic of Finland borders with Sweden, Norway and Russia, its climate is much colder than in these countries, as the country is more distant from the Atlantic Ocean and the warming Gulf Stream.
There are 4 seasons in the country, the most pronounced of which is winter. In southern Finland (Helsinki), the winter is the warmest, but cold and snowy and lasts from November to the end of March. In November, night temperatures range from -5 to 6 ° C. The days are getting shorter, the Gulf of Finland freezes. The winter months of January and February are the coldest. The average temperatures in these months are -4–10 ° C.
Spring begins in April, the daytime temperature ranges from plus 5 to plus 10 degrees, dropping to zero at night.Summer continues, as in central Russia, from June to August, the weather is sunny and very warm. The temperature is 20-23 ° C. August is the rainiest month.
In September, autumn comes: the temperature drops a little.
Ethnic composition and national language
In the Republic of Finland live mainly representatives of two ethnic groups - Swedes and Finns, therefore, Finnish and Swedish are state languages. Finns make up almost 90% of the population - this is its main part. So, in 1997, only about 7% of the citizens who make up the country's population (Finland) considered Swedish as their mother tongue. The ethnic minorities include the indigenous Sami people (living in Lapland), which numbers about 1.7 thousand people. By the way, the number of Russians in the country exceeds the number of Sámi by almost 10 times.
Finnish population in retrospect
After 1945, the birth rate in the republic was inexorably declining - until 1973, when its figure was 12 people per 1,000 inhabitants. In the mid-60s, due to the low birth rate in the country, as well as due to mass emigration, the population growth in Finland occurred at a snail's pace.From 1970 to 1980, the population growth in Finland is only 0.4% per year. Only by 1990, the birth rate slightly increased - to 13.2, and in 1991 the population exceeded the figure of 5 million inhabitants. The increase in population growth occurred at the expense of immigrants who settled in the country. In 2004 the increase was 0.18%. By 2009, 5.25 million people were already living in the country.
Population. Finland on the map
As in any other country, in Finland there are geographical areas with high and low attractiveness for living, and the choice is made by the population itself. Finland has a population density of 15 people per 1 km2. Helsinki and Turku - the largest cities - are located on the coast of the country, and most of the inhabitants of the republic are concentrated in the coastal and southern territories. The most densely populated areas are the south-west coast of the country, near the city of Turku, some areas in the north and east of Helsinki and the coastal areas of the Gulf of Finland. The reason for this - the development of industry areas. The north of the country, as before, is inhabited little.
By and large, the population of Finnish cities barely reaches 70 thousand inhabitants. But there are exceptions cities: Helsinki, numbering 564.52 thousand people, Espoo - 227.47 thousand, Tampere - 202.97 thousand, Turku - 174.82 thousand.Cities are surrounded on all sides by dense forests. In the south of the country, a large-scale industrial complex consists of the cities of Lahti, Hämeenlinna and Tampere.
The population of Finland for 2016
Finland is one of the richest countries with a well-developed economy and a consistently high standard of living, and the average life expectancy in the country is 83 years for women and 76 years for men.
According to information published by the Statistical Center, in 2016 (from January to November) the number of citizens increased by almost 16 thousand people. At present, the population of Finland is about 5.5 million people (about half of the population of Moscow). This happened due to the influx of migrants.
The birth rate in 2016 left much to be desired - in 11 months in Finland 50 thousand babies were born, which is almost 3 thousand less than in 2015.
The indicators of well-being include the environment and its quality, employment, wages, work and rest balance, well-being, personal safety, as well as the living conditions that the population has. Finland leads in most of these indicators.
In this country, the average family income (the amount remaining after taxes) is $ 28,238 per year per capita.
As for the issue of employment, almost 70% of the Finnish population (15-65 years old) work in paid work, of which 71% are men and 29% are women.
Finland is one of the leading countries in the quality of education. A good education, like nothing else, is important in finding employment. Almost 90% of the adult population of Finland received a complete secondary education, and this indicator is equal to 84% among men and 89% among women.
Thus, Finland is a country attracting natural resources, cultural heritage and a high standard of living, but the population of Finland is increasing mainly due to migrants.