Formwork for the foundation do it yourself
The service life and the appearance of the building are largely dependent on the quality of the foundation, an important element in the manufacture of which is formwork. Therefore, it must be made in compliance with the rules and regulations of its construction. In the construction of small monolithic structures formwork for the foundation can be made by hand. It is very important to decide in advance on its appearance and to correctly carry out all stages of manufacturing.
Types of formwork
There are two types of formwork: removable and non-removable. The first is used in cases where the planned external decoration of the foundation. Such a form for pouring concrete can be used repeatedly for its intended purpose. After the concrete has hardened, the shields and guide blocks of the formwork are removed and the wall remains solid. Cutting boards for foundation casing in this case should be perfectly flat and smooth. This will save effort and money when working on the lining and waterproofing of the finished foundation.In addition to boards for a removable frame, you can use plywood, metal sheets, or rent a ready-made structure. Rental of formwork for the foundation is a common service in the construction market, using which you can significantly reduce costs and save time.
Fixed formwork: materials
Today, with independent construction, fixed formwork for the foundation is increasingly being used, allowing to erect a building in the shortest possible time. For its manufacture you can use the following materials:
- polystyrene foam;
- chip-cement forms;
Polystyrene foam blocks have high strength and excellent thermal insulation qualities. At the same time, they are perfectly breathable, which gives the foundation to "breathe."
Cement-cement forms have excellent sound insulation. Their distinguishing feature is the presence of air bubbles between the wood chips, which significantly increases the reliability of the formwork.
Fiberboard has high frost resistance, fire safety and vapor permeability. In addition, it is one of the most environmentally friendly materials.
Advantages of permanent formwork
Thanks to the materials used for the manufacture of permanent formwork, the performance of buildings is much better than that of houses built using traditional building materials.
Advantages of permanent formwork:
- fire safety;
- high seismic resistance;
- ease of installation;
- resistance to rot and mold and mildew formation;
- the possibility of obtaining a warm foundation;
Cons of fixed formwork
The fixed form for pouring concrete has its drawbacks, and although there are not so many of them, it’s still worth knowing about them:
- high cost of material;
- inconvenient transportation;
- lack of reusability.
The main types of permanent formwork for the foundation
Fixed formwork for the foundation may be a block type. In this case, the walls of the building under construction are assembled into one design with the help of polystyrene foam blocks that are interconnected as in a children's designer, after which they are reinforced from the inside and filled with concrete.
Decorative fixed formwork is made of modules assembled from plates directly on the wall being erected.In this case, the plates, front and internal, are interconnected by means of jumpers. A heater is placed in the space between them, after which the structure is reinforced and filled with concrete.
Fixed formwork for the foundation with their own hands can be made of hollow concrete blocks with edge lock and absolutely smooth surface. This frame is used in the construction of the walls of pools, terraces and pillars.
The nuances of making permanent formwork
The construction of permanent formwork has its own characteristics. So, to obtain high strength walls, the upper layer needs to be filled only half so that the concrete joint is strictly inside the form.
You also need to remember that the permanent formwork for the foundation will be strong and durable, and the bearing capacity of the walls is high only if you use high-quality reinforcement and high grade concrete. Therefore, it is not worth saving.
During the construction of monolithic walls one should not forget about electrical wiring, plumbing and sewage pipes, as well as ventilation openings. For this, even beforeas the structure will be poured with concrete mortar, it is necessary to drill grooves in it through which all necessary communications will be laid in the future. Moreover, the pipes, in the place of which the holes remain, must be filled with sand. This will prevent the concrete from getting inside the blanks, which will not allow them to crack under its weight.
At the last stage of the installation of the formwork, you should not forget about the obligatory laying of the waterproofing layer directly before reinforcement.
Formwork construction sequence
There is an opinion that it is difficult to make a permanent formwork by yourself. In fact, it is not. High-quality framework for pouring concrete solution is easy to build, if you follow a certain sequence of work:
- choose and buy quality material;
- prepare the necessary fixture hardware (coupling screws, shuttering nuts);
- install the structure and fasten it carefully.
Fixed formwork for the foundation - this is a great opportunity to build a warm house, without resorting to outside help.
Construction technology of permanent formwork for strip foundations
The strip foundation is a very reliable and durable base widely used in low-rise construction. Due to its versatility and affordable price, it has a large scope. Anyone who has even minimal knowledge in building can build it with his own hands.
The timbering for the tape base can be removable and fixed. In the second case, it is recommended to use expanded polystyrene as the main material, which can be bought in any city. Such formwork is made according to the technology of the castle system, by which is meant the connection of its modules into blocks with a high degree of accuracy. This allows you to completely eliminate the possibility of leakage of the concrete solution to the outside. Simply put, the result is a monolithic wall of concrete, which has high sound insulation, waterproofing and heat saving.
Stages of work
As in the traditional development of events, the permanent formwork of expanded polystyrene is mounted on a foundation covered with waterproofing material. At the same time, the forms are placed on reinforcement bars leaving the base.Reinforcing bars are threaded into the grooves after laying the first layer of blocks. It is necessary to stack them overlap, after which they are carefully fixed with wire twists. The reinforcement will add extra rigidity to the whole structure and prevent cracking of the concrete.
Installation of the very first row of polystyrene foam blocks should be given special attention, since it is at this stage that the door slopes and bends of the internal partitions are placed. This should be done in strict accordance with the previously made project at home.
The fastening of the forms is carried out during the installation of the second row, which ensures a reliable fixation of the vertical seams. It is important to take into account that the sides of the layers coincide. The styling technology of styrofoam is a lot like working with bricks. It is also important to observe the displacement of each row relative to the previous one, in order to provide the walls with the necessary rigidity. Vertical shapes are connected by grooves. They simply close at light pressure.
The third layer of blocks is laid in the same way as the previous one. The main thing is to monitor the vertical seams.
At the end of the laying of the third layer, you can pour concrete solution, carefully sealing all the existing voids. For this you can use the depth vibrators, allowing you to quickly eliminate holes. It is important to ensure that the working part of this equipment does not exceed 40 mm. In the absence of professional equipment, sealing can be done in a bayonet way using an ideally suitable piece of reinforcement.
Formwork for the foundation of a fixed type of polystyrene blocks is suitable for the construction of walls for buildings with a low number of storeys. It is not recommended to use it for heavier buildings. Since the blocks used as the base material of the foundation, can not withstand too large loads.