First aid for injuries. First aid for injuries
Injuries cause soft tissue rupture, muscle damage, and significant bleeding. Therefore, the provision of proper medical assistance is a very important point for the preservation of organs, limbs, and sometimes life. First aid for injuries should be directed to the treatment of the damaged area and stop blood.
Help with capillary bleeding
Almost every wound is accompanied by damage to the capillaries and other vessels. This causes bleeding. It can be external and internal. The danger of such a condition is that with abundant bleeding, the work of the heart, brain, internal organs is significantly deteriorated due to poor oxygen supply. With a large loss of blood can even be fatal. Therefore, first aid for injuries involves primarily stopping bleeding.If the integrity of the capillaries is violated, then such a state is not a serious danger. At the same time, blood is released evenly and at low speed. First aid for injuries of this type consists of applying a sterile pressure bandage. Before this, the wound must be treated with antiseptic agents. It is advisable to do this in the direction from the center in order to avoid various harmful microorganisms from entering the open area.
When the artery is damaged, the excreted blood has a bright red color. In addition, it does not follow, but as if gushes forth.In this case it is necessary to apply a tourniquet. However, there are situations when every minute is expensive. At the same time, first aid for injuries and bleeding allows the artery to be clamped above the point where the injury is located with fingers. Such actions almost immediately stop the blood, but should be used for no more than 10 or 15 minutes. This is due to the fact that the hand is tired, and the clamp is noticeably weakened. A tourniquet is also applied over the wound. If the blood continues to go, you need to remove it and tie even higher. Be sure to at the same time fix the time of its imposition.The maximum time for which it can be left is 2 hours in warm weather, half an hour in the winter. After this time, the tourniquet is removed (the artery is clamped with fingers), the place of its application is slightly massaged. Then, first aid for injuries and arterial bleeding is resumed, the tourniquet is tied up again.
Bleeding from veins
Venous bleeding is characterized by the fact that blood is released evenly, its color is dark maroon. First aid for injuries of this type is the imposition of a pressure bandage. If possible, the wound should be treated with antiseptic. Then apply a sterile dressing. Top put a tight piece of cotton or fabric, which will provide the necessary pressure. All this is wrapped several times with a bandage. If such a construction is completely soaked with blood, then it is not removed, and impose another one on top. In this case, it is desirable to slightly raise the place of injury (limb).
Gunshot wounds. Special features
The wounds that result from the use of firearms have some peculiarities. It is important to take into account if first aid is provided for injuries, wounds of this type.First of all, such wounds are deep, the bullet often lingers in the body. There is almost always profuse bleeding. If the artery of the shoulder or thigh is injured, then the death of the injured person may soon come. Very often with similar injuries there is a bone fracture. Serious danger is a head injury. First aid for gunshot wounds in this case is to stop the bleeding, in the presence of a fracture - to immobilize the limb. If possible, the wound should be treated (but only the skin at the edges). The patient can be given painkillers and anti-shock drugs, to provide heat. Immediately call an ambulance.
Wounds in which the tightness of the human body cavity (the head, chest, abdomen, joints) is impaired is called penetrating. They can be caused by hitting a bullet, shell fragments, hard and sharp objects. First aid for injuries of this type depends on the location of the injury. But first of all it is worth knowing the characteristics of such damage. If the wound goes inside more than 4 cm, then we can talk about a penetrating wound.If a hole that has an insignificant diameter is found on the human body, then you should not consider it harmless. As a rule, such wounds of the abdomen, head or chest represent a serious danger. Injuries that are located in the shoulders, ribs, are injured chest. Penetrating injuries of the abdomen include damage to the groin and buttocks.
First aid for penetrating wounds of the chest
First of all, in such a situation it is necessary to call the help of specialists. Next, you should ask the patient not to talk and breathe shallowly. If a person has lost consciousness, then his head must be turned to the side. First aid for gunshot wounds to the chest (or damage to another object) implies that a foreign object must remain in the wound. Any movement of it can increase bleeding and tissue damage. Therefore, it should be fixed in the wound with dressings. If there is no foreign object, it is necessary to block the access of air to the sore spot. Wound may be a cross-cutting. Therefore, the place of the exit of the object should also be protected from the ingress of air.You can cover the wound with your hand or apply a sealing bandage. If the injury was received more than 40 minutes ago, then a bandage in the form of a letter P is applied. A piece of polyethylene is glued to the damaged place with a patch and adhesive tape, while one edge is left free. Such a bandage makes it possible to escape the accumulated air, but it does not get inside. Then the patient is transferred to a half-sitting position.
As a rule, first aid for head injuries begins with the call of the ambulance brigade. Any object that is present in the wound should remain in place. It should be securely fixed to avoid further trauma. If the wound is without foreign objects, it is necessary to put on a sterile net bandage. Usually head injuries are accompanied by bleeding. To stop it using a sterile cloth. It is allowed to clamp the edges of the wound in those cases, if the blood flow does not stop. If the organs of vision are damaged, the bandage is applied to both eyes. The person should be in a prone position, the legs must be bent. When respiratory arrest is performed, heart massage and resuscitation are performed.
First aid for injuries of this type has its own characteristics.First of all, you can not give the patient to drink or eat. Pain medications are also prohibited. If the internal organs are visible and some part of them is located outside, then in no case can one push them inward, touch them with one's hand. Organs need to be assembled and fixed near the wound. Apply a sterile dressing. It is important to ensure that the internal organs are constantly wet, for this they are moistened with water. Otherwise, when dry, they will need to be removed. If there is a foreign object in the wound, then it is absolutely impossible to touch and try to remove it. With the help of bandages or other materials is its fixation. If possible, you can apply a cold to the abdominal cavity. Waiting for the arrival of the ambulance should be in the prone position, bending the legs.
Every person should know the rules of how first aid is provided for injuries. OBZH (school course), specialized classes provide the necessary level of knowledge and skills.