Emergency situations of wartime and peace: classification, conditions, protection of the population
This article will focus on emergency situations in peacetime and wartime. This topic is very relevant due to the fact that every day thousands of people become victims of various disasters. Such situations develop as consequences of military actions, and as a result of human activity in peacetime.
In many educational institutions of the country, the BC course is taught. Emergency situations of wartime, as well as similar disasters that occur when armed conflicts are not conducted, is one of the main topics of this subject. Therefore, the material of this article will be useful both as preparation for studies and for familiarization in order to improve survival skills in critical situations.
Definition of emergency situations of peacetime and wartime
First of all, it is necessary to understand the terms that will be used in the article. So what is an emergency? In peacetime and in wartime, various incidents occur very often, the consequences of which lead to loss of life as well as to damage to public health.
Such incidents are called emergencies. During such disasters, the ecological system of the area may suffer, as well as damage to various enterprises engaged in the production of vital products.
Man-made, natural and wartime - these are the three main categories of disasters that most often occur on planet Earth. In the last years of the 20th century, they also began to list the ecological variety.
The above system is based on the causes of the phenomena mentioned. However, there are other ways to classify emergency situations of wartime and peace. For example, some phenomena of this kind can be attributed to those that occur in the territory of any one enterprise and do not go beyond its limits.
Another type of incident is an emergency that covers the territory of entire cities or regions. As a rule, the elimination of such disasters takes much more time and money. And also it is necessary to involve more significant compositions of rescue services: fire brigades, emergency teams, sappers, climbers and representatives of other professions whose activities are risky for life and which ensure the safety of civilians.
The third type of emergency situations of peacetime and wartime, briefly described in this article, are incidents covering the territories of entire states, and sometimes continents, and even the entire globe. As a rule, the elimination of such threats requires the actions of specialists from several countries. Sometimes international commissions meet to solve such problems and meetings are held.
Above was a brief classification of emergency situations of peacetime and wartime. It is worth adding that the situation of the first category of disasters, according to a territorial basis, is not always the easiest.
History knows numerous examples of fires in individual buildings, explosions that occurred in small spaces, as well as the collapse of various structures that led to numerous human casualties, and also required considerable efforts by rescue workers. An example of such a disaster can serve as a fire in the famous Moscow hotel "Russia", which happened in the late seventies of the 20th century.
The disaster that went down in history
This fire is considered one of the largest in the twentieth century and, oddly enough, in the whole history of mankind. Then the fire broke out at several points in a huge hotel complex. In a short time, many floors of the building were enveloped in flames. Firefighters had to work with buildings of such a height, which was not designed for conventional equipment. Accordingly, the question arose of how to get to the upper floors of the hotel.
Firefighters used an unprecedented way to use the stairs. They fastened them with iron hooks. Thanks to this technique, rescuers managed to reach the very top floors and save several hundred people inside the building.
This fire went down in history largely due to the fact that this situation was local in nature.The nearest fire service could not cope with the disaster on its own. Brigades from many districts of Moscow and from the region were sent to help her.
The official version of the cause of this fire is considered to be professional equipment that was not turned off on time and that was located in the back rooms of the hotel. A documentary was shot about this precedent, containing numerous materials from the investigation of this case, as well as comments from eyewitnesses.
The classification of wartime emergencies will be discussed in the next chapters of this article, and now it is worthwhile to consider in more detail each category relating to the disasters of the peace period.
So, the first item from the list above is a man-made situation. As the name implies, such incidents are always associated with the use of various objects and devices created by people. This group includes accidents and disasters that occur at industrial enterprises, defense factories, chemical plants and so on. Above, two types of incidents most frequently occurring at such facilities were mentioned.
Each of these terms should be considered separately.Thus, an accident is a breakdown of any equipment or a violation of its usual mode of operation. Such incidents usually entail financial losses, as well as the failure of the normal mode of production.
The reasons for the phenomena of this classification of emergency situations in peacetime and wartime can be both the human factor, including the negligence of individual employees, and malfunctions associated with various natural disasters, such as an earthquake, a hurricane, and so on. Thus, it can be said that emergencies of the first type can be the cause for incidents of another type.
Technological catastrophe is such an accident, which leads to human casualties, numerous wounds of people, as well as unforeseen disasters in the field of ecology and disturbances of the surrounding natural environment.An example is the incident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which resulted in a global scale tragedy when several nearby states suffered. The emergency situation at the reactor in the Belarusian Republic in the late eighties of the 20th century provoked several types of emergency consequences.
Radiation contamination results
Accidents at facilities related to the use of atomic energy are one of the most dangerous emergencies in wartime and in the peaceful period.
When a similar incident occurred in Belarus, the station’s employees were the first people affected by the consequences of this catastrophe. Accordingly, the radioactive substances released during the explosion of the reactor cause the first wave of consequences of such accidents. Almost all documentary films and programs dedicated to this tragedy mention that the leadership of the Soviet Union did not immediately send a team of specialists to eliminate the incident.
Because of this, numerous consequences that could have been avoided occurred. For example, because of the wind of variable direction, which happened in the next few days after the catastrophe, toxic substances spread over a territory covering several thousand square kilometers. As a result, there was an infection of vast lands that are part of today's Belarus, Ukraine, Russia, as well as Austria, Finland and some other states. This proliferation of nuclear contamination was the second wave of the consequences of the accident.It should be said about the people who eliminated the results of an emergency.
These specialists received one or another degree of exposure, which, of course, adversely affected their livelihoods and health. To eliminate the consequences, the following method was used: the land was dug up in the contaminated areas, its upper layers were taken to a certain place.However, Chernobyl is still an uninhabitable area, although some settlements are known, where the islands of human civilization remain. Documentary films about this tragedy tell about people who still exist in cities and villages, which they refused to leave.
Environmental and Natural Disasters
These emergencies are always the result of exposure to certain elements, such as hurricanes, typhoons, floods and similar disasters. Earthquakes are considered to be the most dangerous for a person because of their tremendous destructive power, resulting in numerous victims and damaging homes, industrial objects, as well as numerous architectural monuments.
Among the most powerful of such phenomena are known primarily those that occurred in Armenian in the eighties of the 20th century. Then the two cities of this mountainous area suffered the most: Leninakan and Kirovakan.
Also, a very large earthquake in Japan provoked an accident at a nuclear power plant, which resulted in extensive contamination of the area. This precedent happened in the early 2010s.
Environmental disasters include, for example, the melting of glaciers, which entails changes in the climatic conditions of entire continents, and also causes global warming.
Characteristics of emergency situations of wartime
Along with the disasters that occur in the peace period, there is also the constant threat of armed conflict, which with each passing day looms more and more over humanity. Unlike situations that take shape in quiet time, such precedents occur due to the fault of people and their will.
So, these incidents are more dangerous than natural disasters, because they are more complex. The actions of entire groups of specialists are aimed at developing a strategy for waging war and providing maneuvers with a big surprise in order to cause significant loss of life.The second circumstance that impedes the defense in emergency situations in wartime is that, as a rule, the equipment intended for attack develops at a faster rate than the means of defense.
The key feature of emergency situations of wartime is that they are developed by human intelligence, which means that every day the weapons used in them, as well as the tactics of warfare, are improved.
The products of defense enterprises are usually divided into several categories:
1. The weapon is cold.
2. The gunshot.
3. Distant lesion.
4. Weapons based on the action of chemical agents.
5. Developed by biologists on the basis of various viruses, bacteria and so on.
6. Nuclear weapons
It is necessary to dwell on some of these damaging factors of wartime emergencies.
Firearms and edged weapons
This type of weapon is known since ancient times. However, this production of defense plants is being improved daily. There are various types of technical devices that provide greater efficiency of use, as well as an accurate sight. But still this type of weapon remains the most conservative of all of the above.For example, armies of many countries use models that were developed and first produced at the beginning of the last century, and sometimes at the end of the 19th century. Also known are the inventions of such great engineers as John Moses Browning, who saw the light more than 100 years ago, but so far modern masters have not been able to surpass their author.
A huge role in the occurrence of emergency situations of wartime has recently been played precisely by chemical weapons. Invented it and first used in the early 20th century. During the First World War, in the battle for the capture of the Osovets fortress, the German and Austrian troops for the first time in world history used the achievements of chemistry as a weapon. In the direction of the Russian bastions, they released sprayed poisonous compounds. These substances caused great damage to the health of the defenders of the fortress.
Their skin was corroded with caustic chemical composition, and their airways were inflamed by the action of reagents. However, the participants in this emergency situation of wartime, who were in the fortifications, showed such military courage, skill and ingenuity, which allowed them to win a landslide victory in this battle. Russian due to the accurate use of firearms drew the enemy to flight.
The soldiers of the enemy army later recalled with horror that they were pursued by people whose faces were disfigured, while they themselves were more like fairytale monsters than representatives of the human race. Therefore, this military conflict went down in history as the Attack of the Dead. Even after this incident, the Russian army did not use chemical weapons for a long time. The peace agreements of the time imposed a strict ban on the use of such substances. However, the aggressive actions of Germany and the Allies provoked Russia to manufacture and use such weapons during the Second World War.
Such substances are various vaccines and mixtures distributed by living beings, carriers of infections. They can be, for example, rats, mice and other rodents. As well as spreading harmful bacteria capable of some types of insects.
For the first time such a weapon was used for a long time. History knows several examples of such actions that provoked the conditions of a wartime emergency. When the first Europeans arrived in the Americas, who deliberately brought plague viruses and other deadly diseases, many Aborigines became infected.
Evacuation and other measures to eliminate wartime emergencies and protect the public from them are a matter that many scientists are engaged in. The development of tactics of behavior in the event of such disasters is the subject of many scientific papers. This chapter will briefly outline the most important things about wartime emergency situations and how to protect civilians from them.
The main methods of saving people are various shelters, both intentionally constructed and those that emerged naturally, such as various caves, mountains, ravines, and so on. The shelters that are built by people are divided into bomb shelters, bunkers, and so on. Such structures, in turn, are divided into those that are in advance created, and those that are erected directly during the period of hostilities. The task of the leadership of local government for the period of emergency is the timely organization of shelter for people in such places.
Those whose childhood was spent in the war years, and those who belong to the older generation, are well-known procedures for air bombardment. In such cases, a military alarm was declared, and the population of several houses hid in an air-raid shelter. About where this building is located, people were informed in advance.On buildings in large letters it was written about the presence of a bomb shelter in the house.
Another way to protect the population is evacuation of people to safe areas. The decision on such a step is taken by the main command. During World War II, a huge number of people were evacuated from the central regions, which were captured by German troops, to safe areas of Siberia and the Far East.
In addition to the population, the main enterprises providing for the defense capability of the state are also transported to places not covered by hostilities. An example of such an evacuation is the relocation of the Baranov plant to Siberia from Zaporizhia. Then a huge enterprise was transported to Omsk by rail. Employees of the plant also moved there with him. Most of them were women and teenagers.
Based on the foregoing, we can draw the following conclusion about the emergency situations of wartime and the disasters to which people are exposed during the peace period. Statistics show that disasters associated with human activities, such as accidents at nuclear power plants and various armed conflicts, lead to large losses.
Of course, the history is known and numerous natural disasters that caused death or caused damage to the health of many people. However, man still learns to predict these natural disasters, although he has not yet reached perfection in this science. Emergencies in wartime conditions are more dangerous because of their targeted destructive and destructive effects. This danger mankind has yet to learn to prevent.