Diseases of grapes and their treatment. Treatment of grapes from diseases and pests
Everyone loves grapes. Its dark purple, green or yellow berries, poured with juice, warmed by the summer sun and washed with warm rains, as if they themselves are asking in their mouths. But to get this beauty and goodness, the grower must have a lot of sweat. Especially a lot of forces take away the diseases of grapes and the fight against them. Unfortunately, there are no varieties that do not suffer from any infection at all. If a variety is advertised as disease-resistant, this means that diseases on the bush will appear later than on normal ones and, possibly, will not affect all the clusters. Diseases and pests of grapes, of which there are several dozen, spoil the appearance of plants, destroy the crop. Our task is to prevent their occurrence and successfully fight when detected.
The review will begin with those parasites that can be seen with the naked eye.Among them are grape aphid (one of the most dangerous pests), cicadas, worms, wasps, zlatki, carpenters, weevils, mites, leafworms, thrips, grape flea, moth and mosquito. Almost all of them eat leaves and young shoots. Drestochtsy and zlaty gnawing moves in the branches, wasps, cherries gnawing fruits, weevils spoil the roots, grasses moths sweep away everything.Despite the fact that diseases and pests of grapes are so numerous, it is not very difficult to fight them. The development cycle of insects is such that they must lay eggs. Most do it on the underside of the sheet. To fight with the hatched caterpillars and larvae easily contact insecticides. Spraying carried out according to indications. If you find gold and boreholes, you need to carefully examine the bush and remove all damaged shoots, and then treat it with the drug. You also need to weed grape plantings, remove all dry fruits and leaves from the bushes.
As the name suggests, this group of diseases is caused by bacteria. They penetrate the body of the plant through wounds from mechanical damage (for example, during pruning, grafting), as well as “due to” the efforts of sap-sucking insects. The most dangerous disease of this nature is bacterial cancer.Its pathogen lives in almost all types of soil. Once in the plant, he inserts his DNA into the cell of the "victim", after which she begins to divide at a breakneck pace, which is manifested by growths on the vines. There is no cure for this infection. The best thing you can do is remove and burn the diseased plant. It is impossible to take planting material from it, including seeds. Also, it is impossible to plant a new plant in its place for 3 years.
This is another bacterial disease that cannot be treated. It is manifested by the sudden and very fast withering of a whole grape bush. It is caused by bacteria that produce toxins, which are poison for grapes.
Since bacterial diseases cannot be cured, grapes are protected from this type of disease by prevention. It consists of proper care, taking precautions when buying new seedlings and compulsory fertilizing the grapes so that the bushes grow strong and viable.
As the name suggests, this group of diseases is caused by fungi. All of them are microscopic and become visible to the naked eye when their colonies reach catastrophic sizes for vines (in the photo sheet with mildew).Mushrooms can cause diseases of grapes, leaves, vines, shoots and roots individually or as a whole. All parasitic fungi have similar features of existence. With the onset of cold weather, they die, but leave behind themselves spores that hibernate in fallen leaves, soil or in the buds and grape. No frosts kill them. With the advent of heat, spores awaken, begin to germinate. Wind, any water droplets (rain, watering, dew), they spread through the vineyard, settle on the leaves or vines and are introduced into the plant. After that, the mushrooms are intensively grown mycelium to produce new spores and spread further. For the season of such new generations (depending on the weather) there can be up to three dozen! Ate a mushroom had time to penetrate into the body of the plant, it becomes inaccessible for drugs. It is therefore extremely important that the treatment of grapes from diseases was carried out in the correct time frame. There is also a fungal disease - verticillus, for which there is no treatment. Its manifestations and outcome are similar to apoplexy.
This infection is also called downy mildew. Initially, only young shoots and leaves are affected, later the fungus captures inflorescences and berries.As a result, the whole bush suffers from mildew.There are various diseases of grapes and the fight against them, but mildew is considered the most dangerous. At the initial stage, it appears brighter than the entire leaf plate stains. The fungus continues to develop and soon the spots become gray-brown, and a gray patina appears on the underside of the leaf. These are new disputes, ready to spread further through the vineyard with the easiest breeze or a drop of moisture. Shoots are affected as well as leaves. Diseased inflorescences and ovaries darken and dry out. If the fungus struck the stem of the inflorescence, the whole bunch dries out and disappears. Overwinters with mildew in the soil and on the leaves. To reduce the risk of this disease, preventive measures should be included in the care of grapes - cleaning of fallen leaves and spraying the ground around the bush with fungicides. Spraying of grapes against mildew is conducted by Bordeaux mixture, which is prepared independently from copper sulphate and quicklime. You can also use Ridomil, Atsidan, Mancozeb, Rapid Gold and other drugs. Spraying begins when the temperature of the air has reached +10, young shoots have grown 10 cm, good rain has passed or when light green spots appeared on the leaves. Further processing is carried out every 7-14 days.
Oidium grape disease
This infection is also called powdery mildew. It can begin at any stage of plant development and hit any part of it or all at once. Oidium mushroom overwinters in the bark and buds of grapes. It manifests itself as a dirty white fluffy bloom on leaves, shoots, and berries.At the same time, leaf blades turn yellow, flowers and young ovaries dry up, and if the disease began in the phase of ripening berries, cracks appear on them, from which bones stick out. Warm winters and rainy springs are most favorable for oidium. Then there are real epidemics of this infection. To prevent oidium grape disease, the first treatment is carried out in early March, especially if the weather is favorable for the fungus. Further, according to indications. Preparations against oidium: ground and colloidal sulfur, copper oxychloride, Topaz, Bayleton, Tiovit Jet.
Diseases of grapes and their treatment is not easy. Many sores look like, for example, oidium and Alternaria. You can distinguish them with a little experience. Rip off the affected leaf, put it on a wet plate, cover with another plate and put in a couple of hours in heat.In case of Alternaria, the whole leaf is covered with olive bloom. The parasite winters in the soil, in the bark and kidneys of living grapes, as well as in its dead parts. There are two types of Alternaria - Tenuissima and Uni Blanc. The first is particularly striking European-American grapes. It manifests itself in multiple dark spots on the leaf blade. With increasing temperatures, the leaves dry completely and fall off. Mushroom continues to live in them. The second disease also affects the leaves and shoots, and in addition, berries. Manifested in the olive raid on the affected parts of the plant on the leaves and berries, in the lightening of infected shoots and in spots with dry edges on the leaves. Disease Uni Blanc greatly reduces the winter hardiness of grapes and its yield. The fight begins with the opening of the first two sheets. Preparations - Bordeaux liquid, "Ridomil", "Cabrio Top", "Skor" and others.
Diseases of grapes and their treatment depend on various causes. Anthracnose, for example, is actively manifested in high humidity, regardless of air temperature. Especially if the grapes are damaged by hail. First, the infection appears on young leaves and shoots and appears dry spots, in place of which later holes appear. Their edges are black. The sheet either dries or bent.Cracks appear on the affected shoots (sometimes to the very center). On the affected berries, the disease manifests itself in various forms with spots of gray or dark color with an even darker border. Later, the berries crack and the brushes can dry out completely.Mushroom overwinters in infected branches and in dried, but not fallen off fruits. Therefore, the care of grapes for the prevention of anthracnose includes autumn pruning and removal of all mummified fruits from the bushes. Spraying is carried out with fungicides "Skor", "Acrobat", "Ridomil", "Arceride". Begin when young shoots grow up to 10 cm.
It is important to correctly recognize the diseases of the grapes and their treatment to start on time, because many mushrooms, starting to multiply in any one part of the plant, soon capture it entirely. This refers to the gray rot that affects absolutely all parts of the grapes. Mushroom winters also in all parts of the plant. Comes to life at a positive temperature Especially favorable for the fungus wet cool weather. In the heat of the affected berries, you can even make wine. Manifested by the browning of infected plant parts and their death. Berries rot, but can remain in the brush.The treatment against the fungus is carried out with “Fundazol”, “Eupparin”, and iodine solution.
This infection refers to the disease of grapes. The fungus can infect an entire brush or only a few fruits. The disease begins during the ripening period of the grapes and is manifested by browning and wrinkling of the berries. Dirty-pink spots (without rains) and black specks (with high humidity) become noticeable on them. Sometimes white rot strikes shoots, forming light spots with a dark rim on them. Such shoots die off. They fight white rot by mechanically destroying affected grapes and spraying. Preparations "Funzodol", "Kolfugo Super." After hail, such treatment should be carried out immediately, otherwise the fungus will penetrate into the plant body. In addition to gray and white, there are also root, black, acetic and blue rot. Root appears when improper watering and damage to the roots. Acetic is transferred by fruit fly and manifests itself in rotting of ripe berries. Blue rot or penicillosis develops on berries already affected by mildew.
What are the diseases affecting the leaves of grapes
It must be said that diseases affecting only the leaves are very few.As a rule, starting on the green parts of the grapes, the infection soon captures the berries. Chlorosis (cessation of chlorophyll production) can be attributed to purely leaf. Manifested by fading sheet plate. The causes are a lack of iron or zinc in the soil with a high copper content. The bush first sheds the faded leaves, then the clusters and, eventually, can die. There is also viral chlorosis or yellow mosaic, carbonate and edaphic (with a strong salinization of soil, liming, overmoistening). In addition, septoria (leaf disease on dark leaves, the protection is the same as from mildew) and fusarium (signs resembling chlorosis, diagnosed in a cross-section of the branches, on which the pink fragments are to be seen) are striking grapes. Another sign - too small leaves and fruits, as well as multiple painful type of stepchild. Control measures - spraying Bordeaux mixture and regular feeding.
Spotting or bacteriosis
These diseases of grapes and their treatment are complex and not always effective. They are caused by bacteria (leaves, berries, shoots are affected) and manifest themselves in the appearance of various types of stains. On berries, the disease begins with small spots and dots that quickly grow and darken.Bacteriosis stains differ from oidium in that they sink into the berry. Crop may die within 2 weeks. There is no effective treatment yet, but gardeners save grapes with Bordeaux mixture and antibiotics, and with the preventive purpose they are treated with "Fitolavin". At the first signs of illness, it is necessary to destroy all diseased clusters and parts of the plant.
In addition to bacterial and fungal, there are viral diseases of grapes. Viruses are transferred from a diseased plant to a healthy one. They manifest themselves in different ways. The most characteristic are curvature of foliage and its other deformations, mosaic spots on leaf plates of yellow, black, red and other colors, lag of bushes in growth, crushing of berries to the size of peas. Control measures have not yet been developed.