Differential - this is what the mechanism and how it works?
Differential is one of their most importantstructural elements of the transmission. This device is intended for distribution and transmission of torque between two consumers. Also, the differential of the bridge ensures their rotation with different angular velocity. In today's article, we will look at the structure of this mechanism and learn the principle of its operation.
Where is it located?
As we have already said, the differential is a partgear box of the car. However, in different machines it is located in different ways. So, in the rear-wheel drive cars it is located in the crankcase of the rear axle, in front-wheel drive vehicles - in the transmission itself. For machines with all-wheel drive, this mechanism is located in the "distribution" (drive the driving axles) or in the axle crankcase (the mechanism of the driving wheels).
Differential, which is used for drivewheels on the driving axle, called inter-wheel. As a rule, such devices are installed on all-wheel drive cars. Differential UAZ is also considered inter-wheeled.
Modes of operation
In the work of this mechanism, there are 3 main operating modes:
- Straightforward motion.
- Traffic on a slippery road.
- The movement of the vehicle in a corner.
In the first case, the wheels meet an equalroad resistance. The force (torque) is then transmitted from the main gear to the differential housing. Together with it, the satellites also move. The latter transmit the force to the wheels of the driving bridge in equal proportions. Since the satellites on the axis do not rotate, the semi-axis gears that run through the first mechanism move at the same speed. This value corresponds to the speed of the gears in the main gear.
When the vehicle is slippingroad, one of the wheels can slip, and at the same time the second provides a normal grip on the canvas. To ensure that the machine does not slip on level ground, the differential activates the wheel that rotates at the minimum frequency. The second wheel remains untouched. The slip tire does not provide a normal grip on the road, so its torque is close to zero. At the same time, do not forget that the differential is a symmetrical part and it is not a fact that the device will move both wheels with normal speed. Often it happens that this mechanism perceives the effort from the slipping wheel and reduces the transfer of effort to the second. Thus, the car becomes immovable and can be activated only by a winch or a tug.
In the third case, the differential is a mechanism,which slows the movement of the semi-axle gear of the car and causes the satellites to rotate about the axis, which, in turn, increases their speed of rotation. And this happens because in the turn the inner wheel has more resistance than the outer wheel, and additional load falls on it. Therefore, the differential of the car distributes the same effort on both wheels. Accordingly, the torque will be equal in both cases.