Culture of Kievan Rus: a brief description
The culture of the period of Kievan Rus includes the totality of spiritual and material values accumulated as a result of the activities of the Russian principalities. The most developed after the baptism. The culture of Kievan Rus is briefly reflected in this article.
It is for certain known that the Slavs had writing in the pre-Christian period. This is evidenced by numerous archaeological excavations. In addition, written evidence appeared in the tenth century. Chernorizets Brave noted that the Slavs did not have letters to write, but they used features and cuts.
The creation of the Slavic alphabet influenced the widespread dissemination of writing. This event is associated with the names of monks from Byzantium - Cyril and Methodius. The verb was originally created, in which many church books were written. At the beginning of the tenth century, Cyrillic alphabet appeared as a result of the synthesis of the verb and Greek.
The adoption of Christianity had a great influence on the development of writing.In particular, the fact that worship was allowed in their native language.
Literacy was common among the urban population, as evidenced by birch bark letters used in everyday life.
In connection with the Tatar-Mongol raids, many monuments of early writing were destroyed. The oldest surviving is the Ostrom Gospel. Deacon Gregory wrote it in 1057.
Despite the widespread distribution of writing, the centers of literacy were churches and monasteries. Usually they rewrote existing books and kept their own chronicles. Since the XI century, libraries were created at monasteries.
With the adoption of Baptism, the culture of Kievan Rus developed at a rather fast pace. Briefly this period can be described as a book. The emergence of writing was the beginning of the formation of literature. Initially, these were translations of Western works that gave rise to their own literary traditions.
A prominent representative of this period was Hilarion. Metropolitan became the author of "The Word of Law and Grace." This is a political treatise, revealing the problems of Russian reality.
One of the main literary creators was Nestor, a monk of the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra. He became the author of "Reading", "The Life of Theodosius" and "Tale of Bygone Years". The last work covers numerous events, political structure, relations with other states, religious aspects, as well as it describes the culture of Kievan Rus. Briefly Nestor covers economic life and life.
Russian princes were very educated and talented. The outstanding creator was Vladimir Monomah. "Teaching" became the most important monument of literature of that time.
The central problem in the literature of the period of Kievan Rus was the princely power and life of the state. These and other questions are raised in his works by Daniel Zatochnik.
The culture of medieval Russia was reflected in the most large-scale and important monument of literature - the “Lay of Igor's Campaign”.
After the Batu invasion, a lot of written texts dedicated to this event appeared ("Word about the destruction of the Russian land").
The development of the culture of Kievan Rus served to update the traditions of architecture. Up to the beginning of the 11th century, wooden construction flourished.After Baptism, stone prevailed over him. Architecture evolved by analogy with the Byzantine.
The first example of monumental architecture was the Tithe Church in Kiev. Its construction relates to the year 989.
The most significant building of this period is the St. Sophia Cathedral. Specialists from Constantinople took part in its construction, Kiev masters helped them.
Most of the surviving buildings of that time are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The culture of Kievan Rus was briefly influenced by outside influences. Gradually, she acquired the features of originality and originality. New types appeared in the painting - fresco and mosaic, icon painting developed.
Basically, this kind of art was used for the painting of churches and monasteries. The culture of medieval Russia did not yet include the writing of self-sufficient canvases and paintings.
The first decorations on the walls of the churches of Kiev were made by masters Greeks. They created complex plots, keeping the interior of the temples in the same style. Especially beautiful are the frescoes of St. Sophia Cathedral.
In the 12th century, secular painting appeared, depicting the hunt of the great princes, various contests and festivals, and the natural world.
In Novgorod and the Vladimir-Suzdal principality, for the first time in painting, features of local life and activity were noted.
In Russia there were many masters who did not succumb to external influence. These are specialists in arts and crafts. Their works were absolutely original, and foreigners could not take their eyes off jewelry, dishes, skillful wooden furniture, gold-embroidered fabric.