Characteristics of skiing
Skiing on snow-covered areas was present in the life of people even before the appearance of world sporting events. The beginning of skiing was laid by Norway back in 1924, when the first in the world competitions were held among skiers. In the same year, the International Federation included ski sports in the Olympic Games. Thus, these races have earned their popularity and become world famous. In this article we will look at the characteristics of the types of skiing in the modern world.
Several types of ski competitions are included in the program of the Olympic Games. Their classification is quite extensive.
Types of Olympic skiing:
- Cross-country skiing is a race for certain speeds.
- Skiing is one of the most extreme types of winter sports. The athlete drives off the descent at high speed.
- Biathlon is a race combined with shooting. The athlete at a time overcomes the path and shoots a target from a distance of 50 meters.
- Snowboarding - snowboarding competition. Considered a dangerous sport.
- Ski jumping is one of the most dangerous types. The skier flies through the air and lands, observing the correct technique for performing all the elements.
- Freestyle is one of the most fascinating sports. A competitor performs acrobatics while descending a mountain slope.
Cross-country skiing is a winter sport that requires high professionalism in owning a technician. Competition speed races with observance of certain distances are held between one age and sex category. They have 2 ways of movement: classic and free (ridged).
In the first case, the athlete passes the distance on the prepared track, pushing off with sticks. With a free style, an athlete is allowed to choose his own mode of movement.
Skiing has several types of competitions:
- Individual sprint - participants who make it to the final after a separate start, run after each other for up to 1 minute, 30 or 15 seconds in the right sequence.
- A team sprint is a short distance ski run. Pretty impressive sight. The rules are such that as soon as one team runs the required distance, it is immediately replaced by another. Teams alternate several times.
- Relay As a rule, 4 teams are running the baton.The participant, running the distance, passes the baton to the next one. In this case, all skiers run in a different style of movement.
- General start All athletes go to the start at once. The results are recorded by the time during which the skier ran.
Among the Olympic sports, cross-country skiing is considered the most popular.
An integral part of the Olympic Games is skiing. It includes the following disciplines:
- Slalom - the descent with obstacles between which the athlete must carefully drive at fast speed. The path consists of two different tracks.
- Slalom super giant. Unlike simple slalom, the height difference reaches 250 meters and more, and the length of the route must be at least 1000 meters.
- Downhill. The length of the descent can reach more than 3 kilometers. The participant descends the mountain descent with the performance of jumps. The track is prepared in advance, there is ice cover for the development of the speed of the athlete.
A rather unusual type of Olympic skiing. The essence of the competition is that the athlete at speed overcomes the distance and at the end of the path shoots a bow or rifle at the target.In biathlon, there are several types of race, for example: relay race, sprint or persyut. Also, the race can be a team or individual. The type of race determines the rules of the competition. Depending on them, shooting can be done from a prone position or standing. Slips can add a penalty or an extra lap to the track.
Competitions in ski jumping from specially equipped springboards take place in the summer and winter periods. Judges evaluate the flight phase and landing. Take into account the technique of execution, distance, speed, wind direction and altitude. Competitions can be held in the form of individual performance or team of 4 athletes. The technique of execution consists of 4 elements: acceleration, departure from the springboard, flight, landing.
It is considered the most dangerous Olympic sport. Statistics show that its trauma exceeds other sports. The main difference is the board, which is used instead of skis. Varieties:
- Racing cross - overcoming the descent with obstacles on a snowboard. Springboards, turns, rollers, etc. can act as obstacles. The rules of the competition state that at the end of the distance the athlete must develop a maximum speed.Up to 5 athletes can participate in the downhill at a time. The winner is the one with the best qualifications. In the final, there are several people with the strongest results, and the struggle continues.
- Big Air - jump from a springboard on a snowboard. In a long jump an interesting trick is performed. As a result, performance skills and landing accuracy are evaluated.
- Sloup Style is a competitive race on the slope with obstacles and performing tricks.
- Half pipe - performance of tricks with acrobatic elements in a semicircular design for extreme sports.
Not for nothing is considered the most beautiful skiing and deserves a place in the Olympic Games. Directions:
- Mogul - downhill on mogul skiing. Freestyler passes a bumpy path with ups on jumps, showing the best tricks and the ability to overcome obstacles with technical turns, jumps and landings. The track is prepared in such a way that it consists of different slopes of slopes.
- Ski cross Race with various descents, ascents, inclines and obstacles.One of the most spectacular types of skiing competitions. Participants can reach speeds of up to 60 km / h. In the first stage, the athletes pass the route one by one, in the second part of the competition they ride in groups of 4 people. The winner is the one who comes to the finish line first.
- Ski acrobatics is the basic discipline of freestyle when they perform a series of springboard jumps. Trampolines may vary in height and slope. Freestylers demonstrate impressive tricks: flips, coups, spins, acrobatic figures. The jury's score is made up of points for technique, artistry and touchdown.
Preparing for the competition
Types of skiing have their own characteristics and require tremendous physical training. From the preparation of an athlete and his physical condition depends on his success. To participate in major tournaments requires years of preparation and perseverance.
When preparing for ski sports, special attention is paid to equipment, as the safety of an athlete depends on it. Preparation of skis is a very important moment, and here you will need a good experience. Experienced athletes use a lot of different tools that process the sliding surface.In most cases, these are real professionals who understand how to handle skis, depending on weather conditions. To prepare the surface before the competition, put different accelerators, fluorocarbon powders, emulsions, etc.
During the race, it is customary to wear thermal underwear and starter overalls so that the body does not overheat during the race. Warm clothes are left in the locker room.
Before the start, the athlete is recommended to be in excellent shape, slept and awake. Nervous tension before the performance can significantly worsen the condition of the participant, so the day before you should take care of your health. It is necessary to conduct preparatory training.
Cross-country skiing track
For skiing, certain conditions are created. If the track will be used for skiing or preparatory training, then you can use a snowmobile with attachments. This is a budget option to create a ski center.
The competition course must meet the requirements of the homologation of the International Ski Federation. This means that for various disciplines certain parameters have been established that must be observed.
First, the width of the road is determined depending on its operation, and all other work is carried out in accordance with this. Rolling the track close to the trees is not recommended.
The finish of the ski run should be located on the south side so that the sun does not interfere with photographers. It is necessary to plan the finding of spectators, training areas, warm-up and ski testing. All this is the necessary conditions that must be created by the organizers.
And also the presence of ascents, descents, a set of heights for different disciplines. The mileage of the track is arranged in a distance of different lengths.
For the smoothness of the snow surface, the track is leveled in the transverse direction in a snowless period. Turns should be smooth and safe.
For hard and dry snow surface make dumping. This helps to drain the surface faster after rain. Poured special for this mixture of sawdust and sand. It also contributes to the fact that on the highway will grow less green. Wet places may impede the movement of athletes.