Brief biography and work of Nikolai Rubtsov
This article presents the biography and work of Nikolai Rubtsov, a talented Soviet poet whose life was tragically cut short. Rubtsov's heritage is poetry, first of all, about his native land. His lyrical hero is a man who loves his country very much and deeply worries with it all the upheavals. Now his poetry has been translated into many languages, poems are studied by experts, published. Creativity of the poet is studied in school. Below will be presented his personal biography, work, photo. Nikolay Rubtsov was a very interesting person, as you will see after reading this article.
The future poet was born in 1936, the third of January, in the very north of Soviet Russia, in the village of Emetsk. Kholmogory, where Mikhail Lomonosov was once born, was located not far away. A year later, in 1937, the Rubtsovs' family moved to the town of Nyandom, south of Arkhangelsk. There, the father of Nikolai Mikhail Andrianovich led the consumer cooperative.But even there the Rubtsov family lived not for long, having moved to Vologda in 1941.
The family had six children, but during the war years, two sisters and the mother of Nikolai Alexandra Mikhailovna died. My father went to the front, the remaining children were taken to an orphanage. Years later it will become clear that because of the confusion with the documents, he returned from the front and was unable to find his children. At the same time, the father was considered missing or murdered, and children up to the age of fourteen lived in the village of Nikolsky in an orphanage. Nikolai Rubtsov will meet with his father only in the fifties.
After graduating from seven years of study, Rubtsov changed several technical schools, but did not finish a single one. He served four years in the Northern Fleet.
The first poem, as follows from the poet’s autobiography, was written by Rubtsov as far back as an orphanage. By nature, he was gentle and lyrical, relationships with peers did not always develop. Maybe it was for this reason that the thoughts of little Nikolai found their expressions in a poetic form. After returning from the fleet, Nikolai leaves for Leningrad and works at the Kirov factory. Then he begins to actively participate in the literary life of the "Northern Capital".
In 1962, in the summer, the first book of the poet was typed and reproduced on a typewriter. It was called "Waves and Rocks". Great help was given by Nikolai's friend - Leningrad poet and writer Boris Taigin.
In the same year of 1962, Rubtsov graduated from an external secondary school and entered the Literary Institute. Gorky, which is located in Moscow. He studies in absentia, and lives in Vologda.
Publications, criticism of contemporaries
In the magazine "October" in 1964, a collection of poems by the young poet Nikolai Rubtsov appears. A few years later, in 1967, the first collection, published in Moscow, - "Star of the Fields". From that moment, it can be said that the literary public of the Soviet Union learned a new name: Nikolay Rubtsov. Personal biography and creativity are very closely intertwined in the poems of the young lyrics. The love for Russia was as strong as the love for mother. With his eseninically burning, longing, sincerity, the poet drew the attention of critics. Especially he stood out against the background of the poets, then boomed from the stage: Robert Rozhdestvensky, Yevgeny Yevtushenko, Bella Akhmadulina.
Recognition of the poet
During his lifetime, the poet published four collections of poems: two in Arkhangelsk and two in Moscow. In addition to the collection "Star of the Fields" were released "Lyrics", "Soul Stores" and "Pines Noise."In 1967 Nikolai Rubtsov finally leaves for Vologda and settles there, only occasionally returning to Moscow or Leningrad.
Besides the fact that in 1962 Rubtsov entered the Literary Institute, he also met Henrietta Menshikova. She headed the club in the orphanage where Rubtsov was raised as a child. Sometimes Rubtsov visited an orphanage and on one of these visits he met his future wife. The wedding was played a year later, in 1963, but they were not registered at the registry office. In the spring, a daughter appeared who was named Lena. His wife and daughter remained in the village of Nikolsky, while Rubtsov continued his studies in Moscow.
In the same year, another event occurred: Nikolay met the young poet Lyudmila Derbina, but then this acquaintance did not lead to anything. Only a few years later, when in 1967, Lyudmila fell into the hands of Rubtsov's collection of poems, she fell in love - first with his poetry, and then with himself.
Lyudmila was already married once and had a daughter Inga from an unsuccessful marriage. In spite of this, Nikolai Rubtsov took them to Vologda, where in 1971 they planned to get married (this time Rubtsov insisted on the official marriage and registration in the registry office). The relationship of the couple was difficult: Nikolai drank, sometimes for weeks.Binges followed by periods of absolute indifference to alcohol. They then quarreled and dispersed, then put up. On February 19, a registration was scheduled at the registry office to legitimize the relationship.
Rubtsov has such words: "... I will die in Epiphany frosts ...". So, they were not just the lines of the poem, but a terrible prophecy. Exactly one month before the appointed registration in the registry office, according to the well-known version, Nikolay was killed (intentionally or accidentally, still incomprehensible) in his apartment by his bride Lyudmila Derbina. The cause of death was strangulation. Lyudmila herself called the police, herself escorted the staff to the apartment where the tragedy occurred. According to the woman, during a quarrel, Rubtsov suffered a heart attack and he fell into a pile of linen, where he suffocated. True or not, no one will ever find out, but Lyudmila did not admit her guilt. She was sentenced to eight years, released after six amnesties. The poet Nikolai Rubtsov was buried at the Poshekhonskoye cemetery in Vologda, in fact, as he once bequeathed to his friends. That is how the life of Nikolai Rubtsov was interrupted. But there remained a memory and heritage in the form of poetry.
The main motives of creativity, lyrics Rubtsov
In the lyrics of Nikolai Rubtsov, creativity and biography, not only as a person, but also the biography of the whole long-suffering people of Russia, weave into one, creating a whole set of interesting images, metaphors. For example, he outlined his impressions of a visit to Altai in a poem that ends with such stanzas: "The flowers are silent, the graves are silent, and only the Katun roars is heard ... "He also has a poem called Spring on the Bank of Biya, also dedicated to Altai. In general, the biography and work of Nikolai Rubtsov is full of places and events.
At the heart of Rubtsov's poetic style is a song - it is Russian song traditions. It is not for nothing that Gradsky, Zykov and many of our other singers sing songs to his poems.
Among the images prevail, of course, religious symbols. Rubtsov himself was a devout man, and at his house icons were always hung. The poet’s image of Russia is always an ideal. The ideal of holiness, integrity, eternity. Also one of the most frequent images is natural phenomena or landscapes. With the help of nature, the poet, as originally conducted in Russian poetry, shows the inner world of a lyrical hero.Rubtsov’s poems on Russia sometimes entirely consist of images of the natural world intertwining with each other.
The attitude of the “non-physical” to the soul is, in poet terms, again very religious. In the soul of Rubtsov sees the part of a person who is able to establish communication with God. The lyrical hero Rubtsov trusts the soul and is ready to follow her without delay. The poet has such lines: "But I will go! I know in advance that he is happy, even though he is knocked down from his feet, who will pass everything when the soul leads, and there is no higher happiness in life!"
Rubtsov is an original poet, and the essence of his originality is that he sang the traditional motives of the Russian people and their land in a new language. Perhaps, among the poets of that era, it is possible to single out only one who possessed such a gift, and even then - it will appear much later Rubtsov. In the eighties of the twentieth century, Alexander Bashlachev will appear with songs-confessions coming from the mouth of either the entire Russian people, or God himself. Unfortunately, in the eighty-eighth year, he will commit suicide. Yet the fate of poets is often very tragic in Russia: biographies and creativity are filled with tragedy.Nikolai Rubtsov, whose poems are full of despair and pain, was no exception.
Many lines from the poet’s legacy became winged phrases, came into use, began to be used everywhere. This is not surprising - all the Russian people live, breathe, born and die in Rubtsov's verses, and people cannot help but feel it.
After his tragic departure, Nikolai Rubtsov left a lot of manuscripts, which were carefully collected, reviewed, and then many were published. If we take together with those poetry collections that were released during the life of the poet, then today we get this list.
- 1962 - "Waves and Rocks".
- 1965 - Lyrics.
- 1967 - The Star of the Fields.
- 1969 - The Soul Stores.
- 1970 - Pine Noise.
And after the death of Nikolai Rubtsov:
- 1977 - “Poems. 1953-1971.
- 1971 - "Green Flowers".
- 1973 - The Last Steamer.
- 1974 - "The Chosen Lyrics".
- 1975 - "Plantains".
- 1977 - "Poems."
A. Romanov said about the Russian classics that the very nature of our land was waiting for the emergence of such a poet as Nikolai Rubtsov, whose brief biography and work are described in our article. There is in his poetry a stately chant and prayer confession. Perhaps not to find better words to say who Nikolai Rubtsov is.Personal life, biography, creativity - everything was tragic for this person. But there remained his poems that they know and love.
Nikolai Konyaev in the series "ZHZL" wrote a book: "Nikolai Rubtsov." Biography and creativity, the life of the poet in this book are described in great detail and vividly. Many books are devoted to the tragic death of Nicholas.
Several streets in the cities of the former Soviet Union were named after him. Monuments to the poet opened in Cherepovets, Totme, Vologda, in Emetsk. Every year, Russian writers are awarded the All-Russian literary prize "Star of the Fields" named after the Russian poet Nikolai Rubtsov.