Brain Syphilis: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment
Many of us have heard of a venereal disease like syphilis. However, few people represent the entire severity and danger of this infection. About 30 thousand new cases of infection are registered on the territory of Russia annually. It is worth noting that the disease itself is not as dangerous as its secondary and tertiary manifestations. If at the initial stages of its development, brain syphilis affects only the skin, then over time pathological processes also occur in the internal organs.
The essence of the disease and its causes
By this pathological condition is understood damage to the brain and its main structures. The causative agent of the infectious process is pale treponema. Once in the body through the mucous membranes and wounds on the skin, it multiplies for some time in the primary focus. Then comes the moment when the bacteria enter the bloodstream. They begin to spread throughout the body and secrete their own endotoxin.This substance has an adverse effect on all organs and systems.
The main route of transmission is sexual intercourse. Less commonly, the disease is transmitted in a household way: through personal hygiene items, dishes, cigarettes. Infection is also possible through saliva, if syphilitic elements are contained in the oral cavity of the patient. Not only is sweat and urine contagious, but sperm and breast milk are. The chance of catching syphilis through blood transfusions is negligible.
Scientists have shown that the number of pale treponema bacteria in the body of a healthy person directly affects the possibility of infection. People who have had repeated sexual contact with patients have a much higher risk of becoming ill compared to those who have had a single intimate relationship.
Symptoms of brain syphilis vary depending on the stage of development of the disease. If the course of the pathological process follows a conditional sequence, it is possible to distinguish three stages of the lesion:
- Syphilitic neurasthenia.
- Meningeal form of syphilis.
- Vascular and gummy brain damage.
Each of these periods has its own clinical picture.Its features will be discussed below.
At the initial stage of development, patients may complain of constant fatigue and decreased performance. There may be episodic headaches, general emotional depression.
In addition, a symptom such as senesthopathy appears. Patients describe it as a painful and aching feeling on the surface of the body and organs. The main feature of this feature is the absence of any objectivity and clarity. In most cases, senesthopathy indicates the initial manifestations of mental disorders.
Syphilitic meningitis also has a number of characteristic symptoms, in the event of which you should immediately consult a doctor. First of all, it is:
With the development of meningoencephalitis, delirious disorders may occur. They are manifested by reduced cognitive abilities and hallucinations.
Vascular and gummy brain damage
With the defeat of blood vessels, syphilis of the brain is manifested by excessive emotional lability, insomnia. Symptoms at this stage directly depend on the localization of the pathological process.For example, when it is spread to large vessels, ischemia of nerve tissue occurs. In advanced cases, a stroke occurs with its accompanying consequences.
Gumma is a kind of knot that forms in the tertiary period of brain syphilis. Against the background of the development of this neoplasm, the clinical picture resembles that of a tumor lesion. During this period, a change in consciousness is usually observed. Patients have paralysis, paresis and aphasia. If the number of gummas is more than one, symptoms characteristic of psychosyndrome (euphoria, indifference) develop.
This disease is usually the result of syrup in a timely manner without syphilis of the brain. It begins its development with an increase in tactile and reduced muscle sensitivity.
As the disease progresses, the clinical picture changes. It is complemented by a lack of coordination of movements, constriction of the pupils and the lack of a pronounced reaction to light. Often the disease is accompanied by non-healing wounds on the skin of the legs.
However, the most obvious clinical manifestation of the disease is considered unbearable pain in the back.It is with this symptom that patients most often seek medical help.
How to cure ailment?
The basis of the therapeutic course is treatment with Penicillin. Treponema pallidum is practically the only bacterium that has not yet developed resistance to its components. It does not synthesize the enzymes that break down the substance penicillin and has no internal defense mechanisms. The drug is administered intravenously, and the dosage is adjusted individually. In case of intolerance, it is replaced with “Ceftriaxone”.
At the very beginning of the treatment of syphilis of the brain, it is possible that the patient has some symptoms. It is:
- about tachycardia;
- increase the intensity of headaches;
- increased neurological symptoms;
- joint and muscle pain;
- lowering blood pressure.
For the relief of these disorders are additionally prescribed drugs from the group of corticosteroids and anti-inflammatory drugs.
After discharge from the hospital, the patient is under constant medical supervision for about 2 years. At the same time, the analysis of cerebrospinal fluid is performed once every 6 months.If necessary, re-treatment of the syphilitic process is recommended.
Diet and lifestyle correction
After discharge from the hospital, all patients, without exception, are given recommendations on nutrition and correction of the regimen. For example, for the entire period of rehabilitation will have to abandon smoked meat and pickles, marinades. Preference should be given to food, steamed without salt and spices. Fried food is strictly contraindicated. The number of cigarettes smoked should be reduced to a minimum, and it is better to completely eradicate this addiction.
After treatment of syphilis of the brain, you should try to avoid:
- infectious diseases;
- excessive physical exertion;
- stressful situations;
- mental surge.
Intimacy is possible only with the permission of the doctor. In this case, casual sex is strictly prohibited.
Can brain syphilis be prevented? Compliance with basic preventive measures allows you to avoid the penetration of infection into the body:
- It is necessary to monitor personal and intimate hygiene.
- During sexual intercourse, you need to use barrier contraceptives.
- It is recommended to avoid sharing dishes and linen with people whose state of health is not credible.
- You need to constantly engage in strengthening the immune system: eat right, play sports.
- It should regularly undergo preventive checkups with specialized specialists.
Such simple, at first glance, preventive measures help not only to prevent syphilis of the brain, but also the appearance of other dangerous diseases.