Borovitskaya tower: description and photo
At the very foundation of Borovitsky Hill, the Kremlin was once established. Here stands the tower, built in 1490 by Peter Antonio Solario. Before that, there was an old exit from the Kremlin and the closest approach from the fortress wall to the river.
In just one summer, the white-stone Kremlin grew on Borovitsky Hill, where, after a hundred years, construction began on the very walls that can be seen today in modern Moscow.
Borovitskaya Tower of the Kremlin, which was once considered the "back gate", is today the main route through which the president usually enters the Kremlin. If on the building at the gates of Borovitsky the flag of any state flies, it means that its president is here.
All the towers and walls that currently exist in the Kremlin were built from 1485 to 1495 at the place where the dilapidated white-stone old walls, built by Dmitry Donskoy, stood.
At that time, they were the most powerful fortifications, designed with the latest at that time achievements of military equipment of the 15th century.Now, both the towers and walls of the Kremlin, in the first place, are an invaluable architectural and historical monument of the Russian state.
All the towers are interconnected by rather high walls, forming an irregular triangle in the perimeter. The whole territory covers an area of 28 hectares. When designing, the architects took into account that the warriors from the fortress walls could fire not only the part of the terrain that opens to their eyes, but also so that they could control the situation along the Kremlin walls. In this regard, the tower a little stand out for the line of walls.
In those days, the towers were crowned with wooden tents, on which watch sentry towers were arranged. Bells were set on some of them (whistles or flashes). The guards called them during threats of real danger to the Kremlin.
In addition, on the towers of the main towers (Troitskaya and Spasskaya) a clock was set. At the Borovitskaya tower they are now.
The location of the Borovitskaya Tower, the surrounding area
The tower is located in the southwestern part of the Moscow Kremlin. The tower itself, which offers an amazing view of the Stone Bridge, is clearly visible from the famous Alexander Garden.
Next to it is the most famous museum - the Armory.His building was built in 1547 and it used to be called the Big Treasury. The Diamond Fund located inside it contains a variety of precious stones and unique metals, which are of great historical value.
The tower is located not far from the Moscow Metro station of the same name, the distance to which is approximately 450 meters.
One curious fact should be noted. During the construction of the metro at this place the house was found in perfect condition. The brick building, built in the 16th century, is well preserved with its internal utensils and furniture. It turned out to be underground after the failure of the ground.
Borovitskaya tower: photos, description
Without a star, the height of the tower is 50.7 meters (the star is 2.3 meters). The building was designed by Italian architect Pietro Antonio Solari in 1490. These were the times of the reign of Basil III.
It is believed that this tower has a twin sister - the famous tower of Queen Syuyumbike, located in the Kazan Kremlin.
Unlike 2 other towers, Borovitskaya was used only for household needs, for travel to the Konyushenny and Zhitny yards, located on the site of the Taynitsky garden.
Borovitsky gate in the Kremlin Palace are the most ancient. Until now, they have preserved images of coats of arms, the origin of which has not been established so far.
Above the gate you can see narrow holes. Previously, they had chains of a drawbridge, which spread over the Neglinka.
The Borovitskaya Tower of the Moscow Kremlin has only 5 tiers, interconnected by a system of stairs that are built into the eastern and northern walls.
The main quadrangle is covered with arches having a cylindrical shape. The second one, which has strips for windows, is covered with a closed vault. In the same room are connected the other two quadrangles, the octagon and the tent.
From the first tier there is a passage to the basement, which is partially covered. The second tier has the remains of the elements of the decor of the former church.
About the name
The Borovitskaya Tower got its name from a hill of the same name, which, in turn, was named after a forest (thick bur) that covered the entire Kremlin hill.
This name has not changed even after the decree of the king (XVII century) to rename the Predtechenskoye in connection with its location near the church built in honor of the Nativity of I. the Forerunner.
There is one legend that the tower received its name due to the fact that the white-stone Kremlin was built during the reign of Dmitry Donskoy by the inhabitants of Borovsk.
Something from history
Borovitskaya Tower of the Moscow Kremlin is the ninth. Its construction in 1490 was engaged in Peter Fryazin. The chronicles say that the building, which used to be located at this place, was called the same.
A long time ago an icon of St. was placed over the Borovitsky gate. John the Baptist, but in the days of the Soviets, she disappeared. Today, this place is a clock.
Borovitskaya tower, like many Kremlin buildings, was blown up in 1812 during the retreat of French troops. However, it was soon restored by Osip Bove.
Right up to the tower until the 1820s, there was a bridge connecting the banks of the Neglinka. It was dismantled during the construction and improvement of the Alexander Garden, and the river was enclosed in a pipe.
There is one amazing mystery of the city of Moscow connected with the Borovitskaya Tower. This is the library of I. Grozny - the mythical Liberia, once located inside the Kremlin. It is mentioned in many annals, as well as in the stories of numerous travelers.Presumably the library was kept in the Cathedral of the Annunciation (in the basement) among the many treasures. And yet to date, there were no precious folios there. Maybe it is hidden in an unknown secret dungeon. It’s not just that there are rumors about some kind of secret passage located under the building. Borovitskaya tower is fraught with many mysteries.
More about the mystery of Liberia
It began at the end of the 15th century, when Sophia Palaeologus (princess of Byzantium), as a dowry to her husband Ivan III, brought many works of Byzantine and ancient Greek scientists and philosophers (Zarathustra, Aristotle, Cicero), papyrus books saved during a fire in the library A Macedonian.
Fueled no less passion for books (known for his love and precious stones), Ivan IV continued to collect this library. He cherished Liberia very much, so he ordered Theorovanti (Italian), a specialist in dungeons and caches, to create underground catacombs in the Kremlin. He so responsibly served his service that a legend arose according to which the library of Ivan the Terrible should not be found for 8 centuries.
Borovitskaya tower is the most likely cache. There is another version that the library is not fiction. One of the boyars locked in the Kremlin during the Polish intervention period, said that all the books had disappeared because of the terrible famine during the long siege. Then the boyars had eaten all living things (birds, dogs, and cats), and also found parchments found in one of the basements with sheep lard.
The search for the library of I. Grozny continues to this day.