Biological resources of the Azov Sea. Economic value of the Azov Sea
Seashores are low. Underwater terrain is characterized by a smooth transition to an increase in depth, from the coast to the middle. The maximum depth of the Azov Sea is in the center. The pond has several bays, the largest:
There is also a Sivash, more precisely, even the estuary, strongly isolated from the water area.
The reservoir does not have large islands, but there are several shoals that are often flooded with water (these are Birch and Turtle). Azov is considered one of the youngest flat-bottom pools.
origin of name
Back in the 1st century BC, people in Russia knew about the Sea of Azov, but they called it Blue then. During the period of existence of the Tmutarakan principality, the reservoir was called Russian. Already at the beginning of the XVIII century, the sea received a new name - Saksin. With the arrival of the Tatar-Mongol, new names appeared again at the reservoir,Balyk-Dengiz and Chabak-Dengiz. One of the versions says that it was the word “Chabak” that was transformed and it turned out to be “the basics”. Although the theory is rather dubious. Another version says that the word "Azov" is Turkic and is translated as "low." But the most reliable version can be considered the fact that the Sea of Azov was named after the settlement of the same name. The name stuck in the reign of Peter I.
Biological and coastal resources
According to some scientists, the biological resources of the Sea of Azov have signs of oil-bearing. In support of this, there are two factors:
- the presence of mud volcanoes on the coast;
- gas field at the bottom of the sea.
The first gas well is already operating in the Genichesk area, which increases the significance of the Kherson region.
The banks of the Azov also have deposits of iron ore, which is mined in the Kerch Peninsula. The same deposits were found on the west coast near Mariupol.
However, gas and iron ore is not limited to the significance of Azov. The biological resources of the Sea of Azov are still sand of the River Byrd, which flows into the Sea of Azov. It contains a high percentage of apatite.
Another important biological resource of the Azov Sea is salt. Behind her went to the Sivash Chumakov, and before them the Greeks and Scythians. In the XIX century, salt production in the region reached 200 thousand tons. However, later the competition was Donbass rock salt and gradually extraction of sea salt on Azov decreased. Now it is mined no more than 60 thousand tons per year.
Sivash Bay is also the most valuable complex of chemical raw materials. There is a huge amount of brine, a high content of chemical elements, which in some places is 20 times higher than in the sea itself. The valuable elements of the brine include bromine and magnesium, which are already used by some chemical enterprises of the Azov region and the Northern Crimea.
Biological resources of the Sea of Azov are characterized by high productivity. Only phytoplankton biomass is 200 grams per 1 cubic meter. At the same time, the bottom flora is poor. But there are 79 species of fish in the Sea of Azov. Therefore, fishing is about 100 thousand tons per year. So, 80 hectares of fish per 1 hectare of Azov’s surface account for only 2 kg in the same Black Sea, and even less in the Mediterranean — 0.5 kg. Of the types of fish valuable for industry, the following are distinguished:
Conventionally, the fish of Azov is divided into 4 categories:
- sturgeon, which come to spawn in the floodplains of rivers;
- the fish that has chosen the lower reaches of the rivers is also called semi-passage;
- resident in the waters of Azov;
- fish that goes into the waters of the Black Sea.
Along with this, the salinity of the water increases, which negatively affects the performance of individual fish species, and its quantity is reduced.
Azov is rich not only in fish, but also in mollusks. Here live mussels, heartworm, sendesmia and others, which are a source of food for fish of the Sea of Azov.
And jellyfish got into the Sea of Azov quite by accident, when in the 70s of the last century the waters of the Black Sea got into the pond. Together with them came the jellyfish, feeding on plankton, of which there are many.
In the sea there is only one dolphin - the Azov and one shark - katran. It is also called the sea dog. The largest individuals reach only 1 meter in length, this fish is absolutely safe for humans. The only thing that the katran has spines on the fins, which, if carelessly handling fish, can cause serious injuries.
The fauna of the Azov Sea is represented by a huge number of birds.This white-eyed dive, golden eagle and marsh owl, great white egret and bittern. Naturally, the most common birds of Azov are gulls and terns, which can be found on any seashore.
However, not all birds are happy residents of the Azov Sea. Recently, cormorants appeared in the water area, which turned the shores into a zone of ecological disaster. In particular, huge damage has been done to the Housing Spit, where these large birds number over 10 thousand. Previously, the bird lived on the Danube floodlands, and in the Azov region appeared only a few years ago. The cormorant can reach 1 meter in length, and its droppings cause great damage. Therefore, the bird and expelled from the Danube floodplain. In addition, the cormorant has already destroyed more than 33 hectares of forest plantations on the Humming Spit. The forest on the spit is already called dead. A cormorant per day can eat about 1 kg of fish, and if this is multiplied by the number of individuals, then you get an impressive figure. And the bird loves not only bull, but also zander.
Naturally, so that the economic significance of the Azov Sea did not decrease further, the reservoir requires protection. Every year river flow to the sea decreases, and this is progressive salinization of the reservoir.Accordingly, it is necessary to develop an economic and environmental model, to assess the effectiveness of the impact of the designed Kerch hydroelectric complex. It is required to strengthen fish farming activities in order to restore the diversity of fish species, in particular, sturgeon.
So, we considered the biological resources of the Azov Sea.