Biography of Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov. The life and work of Lermontov
Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov was born on October 3, 1814 in Moscow, and died at the foot of Mashuk Mountain, located near Pyatigorsk, on July 15, 1841. His ashes in April of the following, in 1842, were transported to Tarkhany, to the family crypt. This article presents the biography of Lermontov, the main milestones of his life and work.
The origin of M. Yu. Lermontov
He was the son of Yuri Petrovich Lermontov (1787–1831 years of life), army captain, and Maria Mikhailovna (1795–1817 years of life) - 1773-1845), which belonged to an influential and rich Stolypin family.
Lermontov in this genus was in the property or kinship with Hastatovs, Shah-Girey, Evreinovs, Meshcherinovs, Philosophers, and also Alexey Arkadyevich Stolypin, one of his best friends, nicknamed Mongo.The marriage against the will of the maternal grandmother was unhappy and unequal; the boy was forced to grow up in an environment of constant family discord.
After his parent died early, her mother, a woman of authority, intelligent and firm, transferred all her love to her grandson, took up herself in his upbringing, removing her father completely.
In the works of Lermontov, these early impressions of life in Tarkhany were reflected in such works as People and Passions (1830), Strange Man (written in 1831), as well as in the epitaph (1832) and Horrible the fate of father and son ", created by the author in 1831.
Generic family traditions also directly or indirectly influenced him. The Lermontov family was believed to have been founded by George (Yuri) Lermont, a Scottish officer who lived in the 17th century. He goes back to Thomas Rifmach (13th century) - a semi-legendary soothsayer and poet from Scotland.
The childhood of Mikhail Yuryevich took place in the Penza province, in the Tarkhany estate, which belonged to the boy’s grandmother. Now here is the museum of Lermontov. The future poet received a metropolitan education at home (the Frenchman was his tutor, the German was Bonno, and in later years an Englishman was appointed as a teacher).The Lermontov Museum, as a symbol of the connection of times, carefully keeps the tree planted by Mikhail Lermontov in the Tarkhany estate, on the bank of the pond.
Since childhood, the boy fluent in German and French. As a child, he knew well the life of his native landowner manor (including social), which he captured in his autobiographical dramas. Grandmother in the summer of 1825 took Mikhail Yuryevich to the Caucasus, to the waters; his impressions of the mountain peoples and Caucasian nature remained in the early works of this author ("The Caucasus", 1830, the poem "The Blue Mountains of the Caucasus, written in 1832, greet you! ..").
Moving to Moscow, studying in a boarding house
In 1827 the whole family of Mikhail Yuryevich moved to Moscow, and he leaves the parental home. Since September 1828, Lermontov has been enrolled as a half-board member in a Moscow boarding school, in the 4th grade, where he received a liberal arts education, supplemented by Mikhail Yuryevich with regular, systematic reading. So continued childhood Lermontov. Even in Tarkhany there was a sharp interest in literature and poetry, in Moscow the boy’s mentors were A.F. Merzlyakov, A.Z. Zinoviev and S.Ye. Raich, who led the literary circle at the boarding school.In the poems of the young poet of the period of 1828–1830 there are traces of the impact of Raich, the “Italian school,” as well as the poetry of K. N. Batyushkov, but already in the guesthouse this author’s primary focus on A. S. Pushkin, in particular, on the Byronic poem , as well as the program of all-wisdom from the magazine "Moskovsky Vestnik". It is the Byronic poem that in the coming years becomes the main one in the early work of Mikhail Yuryevich. In 1828-1829, he created the following works: "Two Brothers", "Oleg", "Criminal", "Corsair".
Moscow University, the first hobby
In March 1830, the free-style arrangements of the guesthouse displeased Tsar Nicholas I himself (who visited him in the spring), and by the order of the Senate, this educational institution was transformed into a gymnasium. Lermontov, in 1830, "by request" evades and spends the entire summer at the Stolypin, in the Serednikovo estate, located near Moscow (from April to July 1830); in the same year, after passing the exams, he was enrolled as a student at Moscow University. This period also includes the first serious youthful passion of Lermontov E. A. Sushkova (years 1812-1868), with whom Mikhail Yuryevich met A. M.Vereshchaginoy, his friend. Sushkova is dedicated to the lyric "cycle" of 1830 (the poems "Beggar", "To Sushkova", "Night", "Stansy", "Imitation of Byron", "I don't love you: passions", etc.).
The life and work of Lermontov are closely related, since the works of this poet largely reflect his life, including love, impressions.
Apparently, Mikhail Yuryevich somewhat later experiences an even stronger feeling, albeit briefly, to N. F. Ivanova (years of life - 1813–1875), daughter of F. F. Ivanova, playwright. The poems of the cycle dedicated to her ("N.F.I ... howl", "Romance for I ...", "N.F.I.", "K *", etc.) are notable for their high drama, including motives of death, love treason, etc. In the drama "Strange Man" also reflected the general contours of the novel with this girl.
The next recipient of the poems of Mikhail Yuryevich in the early 1830s was Lopukhina (in Bakhmetev's marriage) Varvara Aleksandrovna (years of life - 1815-1851), the sister of Lermontov’s university colleague. Mikhail Yurevich’s feeling for her was the longest and strongest; he, according to A.P. Shang-Giray, who is close to the poet, preserved him "until his death"Varvara Alexandrovna was a prototype and an addressee in both the poet’s early lyrics (“K.L.”, “She has a wonderful beauty ...”, etc.) and in his later works: “Valerik” or, for example, a dedication to the sixth edition "Demon". This image passes through the works of Lermontov in the poems "Princess Ligovskoy", "No, not so ardently I love you," etc.
Moving to St. Petersburg and military career
We continue to describe the biography of the great Russian poet. In the early 1830s, the life and work of Lermontov moved to the next stage. Disappointed with the teaching routine, Mikhail Yuryevich left the university in 1832 and went to St. Petersburg (July-August of the same year), hoping to continue his education at St. Petersburg University; however, here they refused to set off courses taught in Moscow. In order not to start anew training, the poet takes, not without hesitation, the advice of his relatives to choose a military career for themselves. He takes exams in November 1832 at the Guards Warrant Officer School and spends two “terrible years” in this private school, where parades, duties, and front-line service left almost no time for Lermontov to do creative work (the life of this place was reflectedin a crudely naturalistic form in Mikhail Yur'evich's junkers' poems - “Ulansh”, “Peterhof Festival”, “Gospital”, written in 1834). This theme comes to life in the next, in 1835, when the poet was released by the cornet to the Hussar regiment (this happened in September 1834). At the same time, his poem "Haji Arbek" is born, Mikhail Yuryevich gives the censorship the drama Masquerade in the first edition, works on Boyarin Orsha and Sashka, begins to write his novel Princess Ligovskaya.
Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov gets the opportunity to communicate with representatives of literary circles of St. Petersburg. However, information about these contacts is scarce; it is known that he met I.I. Kozlov, A.N. Muravyov, and S.A. Raevsky, close to the Slavophile circles, which contributed to the growth of Lermontov’s already already emerging interest in the problems of national culture and history. Rajewski, one of the closest comrades of this author (who suffered in 1837 for distributing the poem "The Death of a Poet"), was introduced to the work of Mikhail Yuryevich on the work "Princess Ligovskaya" (begun in 1836, but not completed)published only in 1882), in which one of the plot lines is based on the history of the novel of Lermontov with Sushkova, which resumed at that time.
"Death of poet"
Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov in 1835-1836 is not in the closest circle of A.S. Pushkin, with the poet himself, he is also not familiar. Therefore, the poem "Death of the Poet" (written in 1837, published - in 1858) becomes all the more fundamental. In his speech, Lermontov represents a whole generation that mourned the death of this national genius and rebelled against its enemies who had ruined it. The work of this instantly spread in various lists and brought fame to its creator. The poet put the brunt of the blame on society, in particular, on its top, the so-called "new aristocracy" (in his poem - "arrogant descendants"), which had no support in the national cultural and historical tradition and constituted the core of the anti-Pushkin party in the capital, preserved and posthumous hatred of him. The final 16 lines of the poem (added later, on February 7) at the court were interpreted as a direct “appeal to the revolution”.Lermontov was arrested on February 18, 1837; a political case began about his poems called "inadmissible" verses. Mikhail Lermontov creates several works under arrest: the poems "Neighbor", "Prisoner", etc., which initiated his "prison lyrics" - a brilliant cycle of poems, including such works as "The Captive Knight" and "Neighbor" (both - in 1840 year) and others.
Years of service in the Caucasus
In February 1837, the king issued an order to transfer Lermontov to the Nizhny Novgorod Dragoon Regiment as an ensign in the Caucasus. He left through Moscow in March. On the road, having caught a cold, Mikhail Yuryevich was sent for treatment along the way to his regiment in Stavropol, Kislovodsk, Pyatigorsk (April - September 1837) and other places. In November, Lermontov was sent to Tiflis, where connections with the cultural environment grouped around A. Chavchavadze (attributable to the father-in-law Griboedov) had arisen. This man was one of the most significant representatives of romanticism in Georgia. Mikhail Yuryevich comes into close contact with the life of the people, sees the life of Russian soldiers, Cossack villages, various Caucasian peoples. All this reflects the work of Lermontov, in particular,in the elements of folklore; in 1837, the poet writes down a fairy tale about Ashik-Keriba of the same name, where he seeks to show the flavor of oriental speech, the psychology of an Azerbaijani narrator; in "The Runaway", "The Cossack Lullaby Song", "The Gifts of Terek" the folk character with its ethnic features grows out of the folklore element. In Stavropol and Pyatigorsk, the poet meets with N. M. Satin, whom he knew from the Moscow guesthouse, as well as Dr. N. W. Mayer (his “Werner” prototype in “Princess Mary”) and Belinsky; converges closely with A.I. Odoyevsky, to whom he later devoted a poem "In Memory of A.I. Odoyevsky".
What was Lermontov?
Mikhail Yuryevich made a great impression, as Belinsky later wrote in his letters about. People of the so-called “generation of the 1820s”, the Decembrists in particular (Lorer, Nazimov), felt that the poet Lermontov was a representative of a generation infected with social pessimism and skepticism that hides his inner world from others under the mask of social indifference and irony. In Mikhail Yuryevich, this was often expressed outwardly in the desire to shy away from talking on any serious topics, in an ironic attitude towards confessionality and enthusiasm. This characteristic of Lermontov was noted by many contemporaries.In 1837, such a manner of holding oneself pushed Belinsky away from him, who was used in friendship circles to philosophical debates. For Lermontov himself, meanwhile, these conversations and meetings became a rich creative material: he found an opportunity to comprehend, by contrast, some social and psychological signs of the generation to which he belonged. The results of this are summarized by the poet Lermontov in the Duma and in the image of Pechorin.
During the exile, and especially later, another, artistic talent of Mikhail Yuryevich, who had been fond of painting since childhood, was revealed. His brushes belong to oil paintings, watercolors, genre scenes, landscapes, caricatures and portraits, the best of which are related to Caucasian themes.
Return to Petersburg
The further biography of Lermontov is marked by the following events. The reference of Mikhail Yuryevich through A. Kh. Benkendorf was reduced by the grandmother’s troubles. In October 1837, an order was issued to transfer the poet to the Novgorod province in the Grodno Hussars, and then to Tsarskoye Selo. Mikhail Yurevich returns in January 1838, and then, from May 1838, settles in St. Petersburg.Years of literary fame of the poet falls on the period from 1838 to 1841 years. He is immediately accepted into the Pushkin literary circle, where he converges with P. A. Vyazemsky, V. A. Zhukovsky, V. A. Sologub, P. A. Pletnev, closer with V. F. Odoyevsky, and also Karamzins, who became for him is the closest cultural environment: he participates in the home entertainment and performances of this family, he is friends with the regular visitors of their salon - I. P. Miatlev, Smirnova-Rosset, Rostopchina. Here, at the Karamzins, the poet read “Clouds” on the eve of his last exile. In 1840, the “Hero of Our Time” and “Poems” are published in separate editions in St. Petersburg - the only lifetime poetic collection.
"Circle of sixteen"
In 1838-1840, Mikhail Yuryevich is a member of the “Circle of Sixteen” - a youth aristocratic society, whose members are K.V. Branitsky-Korchak, A.N. Dolgoruky, I.S. Gagarin, Stolypin and others. It was united by special laws behavior, as well as political opposition members of this association. According to some reports, Lermontov plays a dominant role in this circle.
Collision with E. Barant
Biography of Lermontov continues with the following events.At the ball at the Countess Laval, held in February 1840, Mikhail Yuryevich clashed with E. Barant, the son of the French envoy. The reason was the secular rivalry of these two people, more precisely, the preference of the poet Princess M. A. Shcherbatova (which Mikhail Lermontov dedicated to the poems "On Secular Chains", "Prayer" and, possibly, "Father"). Barant was fascinated by this woman, as was Mikhail Yuryevich (in 1839-1840). February 18 was a duel, which ended with reconciliation. Nevertheless, Lermontov was given to the military court; under arrest he is visited by literary acquaintances and friends, including Belinsky. At the same time, a new explanation took place with Barant, which worsened the process.
Pyatigorsk, duel with Martynov
Biography Lermontov continues. In April 1840 the poet was transferred to the army in the Caucasus. In June, he arrives in Stavropol, and already in July he participates in clashes with highlanders in a battle under the river Valerik.
In early February 1841, he came on vacation to St. Petersburg and spent 3 months in the capital, after which in April 1841 he returned to the Caucasus. In May, the poet arrives in Pyatigorsk for treatment with mineral waters, where he finds a society of former acquaintances, including Martynov, a poet's comrade in the School of Junkers.The jokes of Lermontov touched the latter on one of the evenings, and a quarrel flared up, entailing a challenge to a duel in which Mikhail Yuryevich was killed.
Value of creativity
The work of this poet, which lasted very long (only 13 years old - in the period from 1828 to 1841), was in the post-Pushkin period the highest point in the development of national poetry and opened up new paths for Russian prose. The main dates of Lermontov make up the history of not only his life and work, but also the development of literature in our country in those years. Associated with it is such a thing as the “1830s,” characterized by an increasing interest in the latest trends in religious and idealistic philosophy (Hegel, Schelling), as well as a deepening of self-analysis of society, attention to deep-seated historical processes, and dialectical literary thinking.
During the period of grim reaction, Mikhail Yuryevich expressed his protest against social and political oppression, called for struggle, for action, revealed the existing tragic situation in the state of progressive thinking people, and pointed out that salvation is only among the people. This poet with his creativity continued the work of the Decembrists,preparing in the new historical conditions the way in which the revolutionary democrats walked in the 1960s, representatives of the second stage of the liberation movement in our country. Dobrolyubov and Chernyshevsky, their leaders ardently loved the poetry of Lermontov, noted its great role in the history of social thought and Russian literature of our country.
And the novel "The Hero of Our Time" Mikhail Yuryevich made way for writers such as Ivan Sergeevich Turgenev and Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy.