Anatomy - what is it? Subject of study of science
Human anatomy and physiology underlie psychology, hygiene and medicine in general. Psychology studies the mental activity of the human brain. Hygiene - the impact of different conditions of life on human health.
All clinical sciences are closely related to the theoretical basis of the physiology and anatomy of the human body. Thanks to the knowledge of how the body works, health workers are able to determine the causes of various diseases, to develop methods for their prevention and treatment.
What is anatomy?
The study of his own body has long been interested in people, because every person wants to either extend his life, or at least improve its quality. Various assumptions and theories about how the human body works, began to appear in the 27th century BC. er
Human anatomy is a section of biology that studies the morphological changes in the human body, as well as its organs and systems. The subject of the study of anatomy is the structure, shape and development of the human body.
To understand what is human anatomy, you need to know what disciplines it is connected with, get acquainted with anthropology, physiology, comparative anatomy and genetics. There are several features that distinguish it from other living organisms:
- characteristic features of the anatomical structure of a person (for example, the thumb is opposed to the rest);
- articulate speech.
The study of human anatomy for middle school children begins with the above basic characteristics.
Variety of Anatomical Sciences
Thanks to medical research and the results obtained, a separate discipline was identified - pathological anatomy. It studies the morphological changes in the work of human organs and systems during illness.
What is anatomy? First of all, it is the study of a healthy human body for individual systems. On the basis of the general human anatomy a new discipline was created - topographic anatomy. It allows practicing surgeons to study the interaction of body systems with certain parts of the body, for example, with the skeleton.
The anatomy of the human structure with regard to its functions (the study of the vessels of the circulatory system from the position of hemodynamics, the process of bone remodeling under the influence of the muscles affecting it) is supplemented by functional anatomy. Physiology is a branch of biology that studies the functions of a living organism, its systems and individual organs.
The development of radiology has provoked the creation of a new discipline in anatomy - x-ray anatomy, which is studying the images of internal organs made with x-rays. It helps to identify various diseases in the early stages of development, for example, tuberculosis or pneumonia.
Plastic anatomy studies the external proportions and parameters of the human body.
Most of the literary descriptions of human anatomy are made with regard to the so-called anatomical stand (a person stands, straightening his shoulders, not stooping, his hands are parallel to the body, with the hands pointing down).
The areas of the body, located near the head, are considered the upper, and all that are lower, the lower. What is the anatomy of the organs and how are they located in the human body? There are concepts that describe the location of a particular body part:
- upper - cranial;
- lower - caudal;
- anterior - ventral;
- posterior - dorsal.
For a more accurate description of the structure of man, it is common to use three-dimensional images of the body, organs and systems.
Anatomy research options:
Types of research in physiology:
- denervation (nerve transection);
- removal of the organ;
- the use of computer technology;
This is an international classification of research, which is used by experts around the world.
The organism is a single whole and consists of the following functional units: organ systems, organs, tissues, cells. As a system, it is capable of self-development, self-reproduction and self-government.
What makes the body work accurately and smoothly, like a clock? This integrity is achieved by:
- Combining all the structural parts of a living organism - organs, tissues, cells, fluids.
- Humoral communication and nervous regulation.
The structure of the organism consists of several levels of organization: molecules, cells, tissues, organs, systems. The cell is a structural and functional particle of a living organism.
Types of fabrics
Tissue is a collection of non-cellular and cellular structures that are similar in structure and perform one function. The following types of tissue are distinguished:
- epithelial (cells tightly adjacent to each other, filling almost the entire intercellular space);
- connective (large extracellular space);
- nervous (cells have a flagellum with which they are able to transmit information);
- muscle (consists of muscle fibers that are able to respond to touch and contract under their influence);
- bone tissue (cells are densely located, there is practically no intercellular space).
Further in the article each type of tissue will be considered in more detail.
Epithelial tissue lines the cavity of the ducts, tracts and covers the entire surface of the body. Epithelial cells protect the integuments from external damage and infections. The epithelium is involved in the construction of various body systems.
Cells covering the digestive tract have the following functions:
- they help secretion of digestive hormones, mucus and enzymes;
- promote the absorption of food and water.
Due to epithelial cells that cover the inside of the respiratory system, foreign particles, mucus and dust are removed from the lungs. In the organs of the urinary system of the body, epithelial cells line the urinary ducts. Derivatives of these cells are eggs and human sperm (sex cells). The entire urogenital tract is covered with special epithelial cells that secrete substances necessary for the normal functioning of the urogenital system.
The connective tissue is represented by different groups of tissues that do not border with the external environment and the cavities of organs. The extracellular space in the connective tissue is very large, and the need of cells for oxygen is negligible.
This tissue isolates, protects and supports parts of the human body, performing one of the functions in the body's metabolism (transport). Connective tissue cells do not particularly need oxygen and other nutrients.
Classification of connective tissue:
Each subtype of connective tissue is characterized by a different distance between the intracellular components.
Cells of the nervous system have the maximum development of the following properties: excitability, irritability, conductivity. The structural and functional unit of the nervous tissue is the neuron and its surrounding cells - the neuroglia. The neuron contains receptor processes - axon and dendrite. It is they who receive signals from neurons, and in turn transmit them to the cerebral cortex.
Irritability is the process of reacting to chemical (smell, taste) and physical (cold, heat, touch, sound) stimuli. Conductivity - the process of transmitting nerve impulses. Excitability is the ability to regenerate potency.
Thanks to muscle contractions, a person can freely move in space, change the position and posture of the body. Also, thanks to the work of the muscles, the activity of the contraction of the internal organs is regulated. The ability to shrink is inherent in all muscle fiber cells and is caused by an excitable tissue.
There are 3 types of muscles:
- Smooth (involuntary and visceral).
- Skeletal (arbitrary or cross-striped).
Depending on the functions performed, individual sections of muscle tissue belong to a different type of muscle.
Bone tissue is a type of connective tissue.The bones are the organs that make up the human skeleton. As an element of the musculoskeletal system, bone is a dense structure. The structural unit of bone is osteon.
The periosteum is located on the surface of the body of the bone and has two layers: external and internal. The first layer consists of a solid connective tissue, which performs a protective function. The second is from loose connective tissue, it contains vessels, nerves and osteoblasts.
The periosteum performs trophic, protective functions, and also plays a key role in the formation of osteoblasts. The dense substance of the bone is located behind the periosteum and consists of lamellar tissue. The spongy tissue is under the dense substance inside the body of the bone itself. If you look inside the bone, you can see the cavity for the bone marrow substance, in which all the blood formation processes take place. The articular cartilage envelops the articular areas of the bone and contains hyaline tissue.
The anatomy of human bones is quite complex and requires careful study.The general idea of how our body works can be obtained without leaving home by reading a few suitable articles.