Alexander Ivanovich Kuprin: childhood, adolescence, biography, creativity
Alexander Ivanovich Kuprin is a famous realist writer whose works resonated in the hearts of readers. His work was distinguished by the fact that he was striving not only to reflect events correctly, but most of all, because Kuprin was interested in the inner world of a person more than just a reliable description. The brief biography of Kuprin will be described below: childhood, adolescence, and creative activity.
Kuprin's childhood could not be called carefree. The writer was born on August 26, 1870 in the Penza province. Kuprin's parents were: a hereditary nobleman I. I. Kuprin, who held the position of an official, and L. A. Kulunchakov, who came from a clan of Tatar princes. The writer has always been proud of his mother’s lineage, and in his appearance Tatar features were visible.
A year later, Alexander Ivanovich's father died, and the writer's mother was left with two daughters and a young son in her arms without any financial support.Then the proud Lyubov Alekseevna had to humiliate herself before the highest persons in order to attach her daughters to the government boarding school. She herself, taking her son with her, moved to Moscow and settled for maintenance in the Widow's House, in which the future writer lived with her for two years.
Later he was credited to the government account of the Moscow Board of Trustees at the Orphan School. Kuprin’s childhood there was joyless, full of grief and reflections on how people try to suppress their self-esteem. After this school, Alexander entered a military school, later transformed into a cadet corps. These were the prerequisites for the formation of an officer's career.
Kuprin's childhood was not simple, and studying in the cadet corps was also not easy. But it was then that he first had a desire to engage in literature and he began writing the first poems. Of course, the strict living conditions of the cadets, the military drill hardened the character of Alexander Ivanovich Kuprin, strengthened his will in him. Later, his memories of childhood and youth will be reflected in the works "Cadets", "Brave fugitives", "Juncker".It's no wonder the writer has always stressed that his creations are largely autobiographical.
Kuprin’s military youth began with his admission to the Moscow Alexander Military School, after which he received the rank of second lieutenant. Then he went to serve in the infantry regiment and visited small provincial towns. Kuprin not only performed his duties, but also studied all aspects of military life. Constant mutr, injustice, cruelty - all this is reflected in his stories, such as, for example, "Lilac Bush", "Hike", the story "The Last Fight", thanks to which he received the All-Russian glory.
Beginning of literary career
His entry into the ranks of the writers dates back to 1889, when his story "The Last Debut" was published. Later Kuprin said that when he left military service, the most difficult thing for him was that he did not have any knowledge. Therefore, Alexander Ivanovich began to thoroughly study life and read books.
The future famous Russian writer Kuprin began traveling around the country and tried himself in many professions. But he did this, not because he could not decide on a further type of activity, but because he was interested in it.Kuprin wanted to thoroughly study the life and life of people, their characters, in order to reflect these observations in their stories.
In addition to the fact that the writer studied life, he took his first steps in the literary field - he published articles, wrote feuilletons, essays. A significant event in his life was the collaboration with the authoritative magazine "Russian Wealth". It was in it that in the period from 1893 to 1895 "In the Dark", "Inquiry" were printed. In the same period, Kuprin got acquainted with I. A. Bunin, A. P. Chekhov and M. Gorky.
In 1896, Kuprin’s first book, Kiev Types, was published; his collection of essays was published and the story Moloch was published. A year later, the collection of stories "Miniatures" was published, which Kuprin presented to Chekhov.
About the story "Moloch"
Kuprin's stories differed in that the central place was given not to politics, but to the emotional experiences of the heroes. But this does not mean that the writer did not care about the plight of the common people. The story "Moloch", which brought fame to the young writer, tells about the difficult, even disastrous, working conditions for the workers of one large steel factory.
The work received such a name by chance: the writer compares this company with the pagan god, Moloch, who requires constant human sacrifice.The exacerbation of social conflict (revolt of workers against the authorities) was not the main thing in the work. Kuprin was more interested in how the modern bourgeoisie can adversely affect a person. Already in this work one can notice the interest of the writer in the personality of a person, his experiences, reflections. Kuprin wanted to show the reader what a person feels when faced with social injustice.
Tale of Love - "Olesya"
Not less works have been written about love. In the works of Kuprin, love had a special place. He always wrote about her touchingly, reverently. His characters are people capable of experiencing, experiencing sincere feelings. One of these tales is Olesya, written in 1898.
All created images have a poetic character, especially the image of the main character Olesya. The work tells about the tragic love between a girl and a story-teller, Ivan Timofeevich, an aspiring writer. He came to the wilderness, in Polesie, to get acquainted with the way of life of unknown people, their legends and legends.
Olesya turned out to be a witch of Polissya, but she has nothing in common with the usual way of such women.In it, beauty is combined with inner strength, nobility, a little naivety, but at the same time, it feels firm will and a small amount of authority. And her fortune-telling is not connected with cards or other forces, but with the fact that she immediately recognizes the character of Ivan Timofeevich.
The love between the heroes is sincere, all-consuming, noble. After all, Olesya does not agree to marry him, because he considers himself to be no match for him. The story ends sadly: Ivan did not manage to see Olesya a second time, and only red beads remained in his memory of her memory. And all other works on the love theme are distinguished by the same purity, sincerity and nobility.
The piece that brought fame to the writer and took an important place in the work of Kuprin, was "Duel". It was published in May 1905, already at the end of the Russian-Japanese war. A.I. Kuprin wrote the whole truth of the army manners on the example of one regiment, located in a provincial town. The central theme of the work is the formation of the personality, its spiritual awakening on the example of the hero Romashov.
"Duel" can be explained as a personal battle between the writer and the stupid weekdays of the tsarist army, which destroy all the best that is in man.This work was one of the most famous, despite the fact that the final is tragic. The ending of the work reflects the realities that existed at that time in the tsarist army.
The psychological side of the works
In the stories, Kuprin appears as a connoisseur of psychological analysis precisely because he always sought to understand what drives a person and what feelings he controls. In 1905, the writer went to Balaclava and from there travels to Sevastopol to take notes on the events that occurred on the rebellious cruiser Ochakov.
After the publication of his essay "Events in Sevastopol," he was expelled from the city and forbidden to go there. During his stay there, Kuprin creates the story "Listriginovy", where the main faces are simple fishermen. The writer describes their hard work, character, which were close in spirit to the writer himself.
In the story “Shtabs-captain Rybnikov,” the psychological talent of the writer is fully revealed. The journalist leads a hidden fight with a secret agent of Japanese intelligence. And not for the purpose of exposing him, but in order to understand what a person feels, what moves him, what internal struggle is taking place in him.This story was highly appreciated by readers and critics.
A special place occupied in the works of writers works on the love theme. But this feeling was not passionate and all-consuming; rather, he described love as unselfish, selfless, true. Among the most famous works of "Shulamith" and "Garnet Bracelet".
Such unselfish, perhaps even sacrificial love, is perceived by the heroes as the highest happiness. That is, the spiritual strength of a person consists in the fact that one must be able to put the happiness of another person above his own well-being. Only such love can bring true joy and interest in life.
Personal life of the writer
A.I. Kuprin was married twice. His first wife was Maria Davydova, the daughter of a famous cellist. But the marriage lasted only 5 years, but during this time they had a daughter, Lydia. Kuprin’s second wife was Elizaveta Moritzovna-Heinrich, with whom he married in 1909, although they had been living together for two years before this event. They had two girls - Ksenia (in the future - a well-known model and actress) and Zinaida (who died at the age of three.) The spouse survived Kuprin for 4 years and ended up suicide during the blockade of Leningrad.
The writer took part in the war of 1914, but due to illness he had to return to Gatchina, where he made an infirmary for wounded soldiers from his home. Kuprin was waiting for the February revolution, but, like most, he did not accept the methods that the Bolsheviks used to assert their authority.
After the White Army was defeated, the Kuprin family went to Estonia, then to Finland. In 1920 he arrived in Paris at the invitation of I. A. Bunin. The years spent during the emigration were fruitful. The works written by him were popular with the public. But despite this, Kuprin was increasingly yearning for Russia, and in 1936 the writer decided to return to his homeland.
The last years of the writer's life
Like Kuprin's childhood was not easy, and the last years of his life were not easy. His return to the USSR in 1937 made a lot of noise. May 31, 1937 he was met by a solemn procession, which included famous writers and fans of his work. Already at that time, Kuprin had serious health problems, but he had put on that he would be able to recuperate and continue to engage in literary activities at home. But August 25, 1938Alexander Ivanovich Kuprin is gone.
A.I. Kuprin was not just a writer telling about various events. He studied human nature, sought to know the nature of each person with whom he met. Therefore, reading his stories, readers empathize with the heroes, they are sad and happy with them. Creativity A.I. Kuprina holds a special place in Russian literature.