Al Marjani - mosque in Kazan: description, history, relics and shrines
Al Marjani - the mosquewhich is the pride of the capital of Tatarstan Kazan. This is a magnificent architectural and historical monument, which is included in almost all excursion routes through the ancient city.
Old Tatarskaya Sloboda
This is one of the most interesting areas of the historical center of the capital of Tatarstan, where ancient monuments related to Muslim culture are concentrated. Old Tatarskaya Sloboda covers an area of 87.95 hectares.
Here are located 75 monuments of culture and history, which belong to the period from the beginning of the XVIII century to the last century. One of them, no doubt, is Al-Mardzhani - a mosque, which became a historical symbol of the beginning of multi-confessionalism in Russia, which was proclaimed by Empress Catherine II in the seventies of the XVIII century. For more than two centuries, the mosque was the main and largest in Tatarstan, and today it remains the spiritual center of the Muslims of the republic.
Al-Marjani (mosque): the history of creation
The construction of this structure began in 1766 with the permission of Catherine II during her visit to Kazan. It is noteworthy that the construction was carried out at the expense of parishioners. Sixty-two people collected more than five thousand rubles.
Al-Mardzhani became the first cathedral mosque of stone, built in the city after its conquest by Ivan the Terrible. Construction work was completed in 1770. The mosque was a two-story with a three-tier minaret on the roof. The interior decoration combined traditional Tatar decorative motifs with elements of Petersburg baroque.
Much later (1861) an extension with a staircase appeared on the north side of the mosque. In 1885 it was decided to rebuild the minaret, and it was radically changed: its height was reduced, which was a kind of manifestation of Muslim tolerance.
The roof of the mosque, which previously had a keeled shape (very much like the Peter and Paul Cathedral), was replaced by a pitched roof, closing almost completely the octahedral lower tier of the minaret. And two years later (1887) at the expense of merchants M. Valishin and V. Gizetullin was surrounded by a metal openwork parapet circular minaret balcony.
Today, all conditions for believers of various confessions are being created in Russia. Thanks to the efforts of Imam Mukhtasib of the capital of Tatarstan, a Muslim cultural center is being built around the mosque.
During its long history, the ancient mosque was renamed several times. At first it was called the First Parish. At the end of the 18th century, the mosque was named after one of the richest merchant families in the city. She became known as Yunusovskaya. The homeowner and industrialist Ibray Yunusov contributed the principal amount to the construction of a mosque. And after its discovery, the Yunusov family for a long time maintained and supported the mosque.
Only at the end of the XIX century, it acquired its present name in honor of the Tatar enlightener and scholar Shigabutdin Mardzhani, who for more than thirty years was the head (imam-hatib) of the mosque.
The building was built in the traditions of medieval Tatar religious architecture - with a high minaret on the roof, as well as using stylistic forms of the Baroque.Unfortunately, there is no exact data on the architect of this structure, but the researchers are inclined to believe that V. I. Kaftyrev has become the author.
The architectural and stylistic core of Al-Mardzhani (Kazan) chose the concept of eclecticism with the dominant medieval Islamic style and some elements of the Baroque. The facades of Al Mardzhani are considered unique. The architect managed to lift the secret veil of beauty and wisdom of Islam, and he brought it to the world in the form of a magnificent and magnificent mosque.
The inclusion of decorative motifs in the rich and vibrant language of the Baroque style made this architecture understandable and accessible. There is no strict symmetry here: if a pattern is observed in basic proportions, then each individual element differs from the next in details, dimensions, and decoration. The seeming simplicity hides behind itself the most subtle and painstaking work of magnificent masters.
A spiral staircase located inside the minaret will help you climb the upper tier and see the circular balcony for the muezzin. The tiers of the minaret are almost devoid of decor. Experts refer them to the period of eclecticism. The arched high windows of the second floor frame the baroque platbands,the walls and corners are distinguished by single and twin pilasters, which are stuck into the Ionic capitals. The minaret has gilded tips with crescents. The walls are painted white and the roof is green. At nightfall, the building is additionally highlighted.
The first floor of the building is occupied by office space. On the second are the prayer halls. Their arches and walls are decorated with green and blue stucco and gilded ornaments. The interior is designed in a simple style characteristic of Islam. The internal space of the mosque is divided into two rooms. Here you can see the floral ornament and stucco green, blue and golden colors.
Today, the Kazan Cathedral Mosque Al Marjani is an active temple. It hosts meetings, cultural and educational activities of the Muslim community. On the territory of the mosque you can visit the spiritual literature fair, see the rites of Eid al-Adha. Here, on holidays, tents are set for breaking the joint of Uraz-Bairam together, all Muslim holidays are celebrated.
At the main building there are administrative and civil buildings: a college and shops where you can buy halal products, literature.
Al-Mardzhani - a mosque, the relics and shrines of which attract tourists and believers from around the world. Being the center of Islamic culture of the republic, the mosque is very popular among believers of Tatarstan. An important historical artifact that is of great importance for the Islamic world is stored on its territory - a stone from the grave of Bek Muhammad-Ghali, which is revered by Muslims of the whole world.
- When the construction of the minaret began in the 18th century, the mayors of Kazan addressed a letter to Catherine II, indicating that the minaret was too high, which the Russian empress wittily noted that she indicated to the builders only a place for a mosque. They have the right to rise up as much as they want, since the sky is not her possession.
- In Soviet times, Al-Mardzhani was the only existing mosque in Kazan.
- In the same Soviet years, the radio of many Muslim countries often transmitted news from Kazan. The ancient mosque has always been an example, a certain trendsetter in the Muslim world: how to abide by fatwas, abide by the laws of Shari'ah, and keep at once.
How to get there?
The Al-Mardzhani Mosque (Kazan), whose address is: Kayum Nasyri, 17, is not at all difficult to find, since it is located in the very center of the city. From the train station to the stop "Theater. Kamala buses will take you: No. 1, 6, 10a, 30, 35, 7, 63, 74a, 99. In addition, you can get to the main attraction of the city by trolleybus No. 7, 5, 10 to the same stop. You can use the services of the metro, before reaching the station "Ploshad Gabdully Tukaya"
Al-Mardzhani - a mosque, which is included in the routes of almost all excursion tours of the ancient city. Reviews of tourists who have visited this amazing complex, indicate that they received real pleasure from visiting this holy place. Tourists note that the mosque resembles from a distance a snow-covered mountain peak, which is visible from many parts of the city. Here there is a special atmosphere of spirituality and purity, which is characteristic of all religious buildings, no matter what faith they profess.
Al-Marjani is a mosque, which, as in antiquity, is today the center of Islam in the Volga region. It directs its activities to the peaceful existence of religious denominations not only in Tatarstan, but throughout the world.