Airborne droplet infections
Jul 20, 2018
Airborne droplet infections differ from other groups of diseases in that a healthy person is infected by airborne droplets when a healthy person is close to the patient.For example, when talking with a patient, when the patient begins to sneeze, cough or simply says, minimal mucus particles containing virulent microbes are released into the environment.Further, they fall on the mucosa of the respiratory tract of a nearby healthy person and can cause the development of the disease.
Airborne droplet infections have a high transmission rate and can affect a significant number of people.The causative agents of these infections can be bacteria( pertussis, diphtheria) and filtering viruses( influenza, smallpox).Many infections leave behind a long period of bacteriocarrier( for example, after diphtheria).
Main airborne infections and their brief characteristics:
1. Influenza.The greatest probability of infection falls on the first two days of the disease.Due to the defeat of the upper respiratory tract virus, their protective function decreases and the virus and toxins enter the bloodstream.The onset of the illness is characterized by chills, headache, fever, there is discomfort when moving the eyes.Then there is a runny nose, watery eyes, cough.
2. Diphtheria.Causes intoxication of the body, inflammation of the larynx, throat, nose, trachea and eyes.Infection occurs from the patient when he coughs or sneezes or through objects on which the patient has left the mucus from the nose.
3. Meningococcal infection.Serious disease causing purulent damage to the meninges.The disease begins with a sharp rise in temperature to 40 degrees, there is vomiting, headache, lethargy.After about twenty hours, a rash may appear.
4. Whooping cough.Characterized by the strongest spasmodic cough.The disease develops slowly, there is a runny nose, a small fever, a general malaise, a cough.Gradually, the cough becomes paroxysmal.
5. Scarlet fever.The disease begins suddenly with a high temperature of 40 degrees, blushing cheeks, there is a headache, malaise vomiting, then a rash appears, more often on the flexor parts of the body.
6. Measles.It begins as a cold with sneezing, coughing, fever, then there is a puffy face, conjunctivitis and photophobia.From the fourth day pink spots appear, which last for three days, all the time the temperature is high.
7. Epidemic parotitis.The disease affects the salivary and other glands, CNS.It starts with a deterioration of health, loss of appetite, headache.Then the temperature rises, there are pains in the ears and in the neck, the pits behind the ears swell and gradually the tumor spreads to the cheeks.