"Admiral Kuznetsov" (aircraft carrier): characteristics. Where is the aircraft carrier "Admiral Kuznetsov"?
The doctrine of the Russian Navy is such that it practically does not provide for the use of aircraft carriers. There are many reasons for this, but one of the main factors is the enormous financial costs of maintaining such vessels. During the USSR, the first steps were taken on the way of their creation, but the only ship of this class in our country is the Admiral Kuznetsov. This aircraft carrier has a rather complicated and interesting history of creation and operation.
Surely not everyone knows that in total in the USSR five aircraft carrier cruisers were built. Where are the other four ships missing? We will answer these questions and discuss the main technical characteristics of the Admiral Kuznetsov spacecraft. This aircraft carrier began to design shortly before the collapse of the Soviet Union (along with other similar ships).
The beginning of work on the project dates back to 1978. For the design activities of the Leningrad PKB. First, the engineers proposed to the military specialists a project 1143, which envisages the construction of a heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser. It was based on the long-term work on the 1160 cruiser with a nuclear power plant.
There are the following projects implemented in the form of built ships or existing in the form of layouts and sketches:
- Sketch 1160,providing for the laying of an aircraft carrier, the displacement of which would be 80,000 tons.
- Type 1153.The displacement of this aircraft carrier was to be 70 00 tons, the project provided for the powerful armament of the ship (in addition to the aviation group itself). No built and mortgaged ships.
- The project, on the adoption of which insisted Minsudprom.As in the first case, the displacement should have been 80,000 tons. It was envisaged that at least 70 aircraft and helicopter gunships would be based on the board.
- Project 1143 M.It was planned that the armament of the ship will be supersonic aircraft vertical takeoff of the Yak-41. The third aircraft carrier type 1143 - 1143.3. The laying of the ship was made in 1975.It was adopted for service after seven years, but in 1993 it was written off and cut into metal. The reason is “economic inexpediency of exploitation”.
- Type 1143 A.It is similar to the ships of the project 1143M, but envisaged an increased displacement. This is the fourth aircraft carrier built in the USSR. Bookmark made in 1978, officially joined the fleet in 1982. In 2004, an agreement was signed on the lease of the ship by the Indian Navy, its modernization was carried out to meet their needs. The composition of the Indian Navy entered three years ago, in 2012.
- Heavy aircraft carrier project 1143.5. As you might guess, this is another upgrade of the type 1143. The fifth and last aircraft carrier built.
So where are the "Kuznetsov"?
It is the last ship that is Admiral Kuznetsov. The aircraft carrier, initiated by the Council of Ministers, began to be developed at the end of 1978.
This was project 1143.5. The final technical design of the vessel was ready by mid-1980. Initially it was assumed that the construction of a new ship would be fully completed by 1990. Bookmark was made on the stocks of the Nikolaev shipbuilding plant. But not so easy appeared "Admiral Kuznetsov."The aircraft carrier before its "birth into the world" went through many obstacles, since the terms of its construction and commissioning were constantly postponed.
History of development and construction
The initial draft design was prepared by the engineers by 1979. Almost immediately, the document was approved by the commander of the Navy, which at that time was Admiral S. Gorshkov. The following year, D. Ustinov (head of the whole army department) signs another document, in which he affirms the need for fundamental changes to the project 1143.5. Because of this, the period of the real beginning of the construction of the ship almost immediately moved over to 1986-1991.
But already in April 1980, S. Gorshkov approved the new draft, in which all the necessary changes had already been made. Finally, in the summer of the same year, all parties who participated in the development of the new ship, recognize the development of a cruiser type 1143.5 is finally completed.
But on this the finalization of the project is still not completed. The snag came out in the list of necessary aircraft armament, which should have been on the ship: it had to be worked out in full accordance with the decision of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, which left a certain imprint on the speed of work. At the end of the year, the project of the ship 1143.5 is again subject to adjustment.
Some experts at the time expressed the opinion that it would be more expedient to build a second cruiser on the project 1143.4 (1143 A), and not to waste time and money on finalizing the drawings of the new one. However, this idea was soon abandoned, and the project 1143.4 itself was finalized to the stage 1143.42.
At the beginning of the spring months of 1981, the Nikolaev Shipyard received a long-awaited order for the construction of a new cruiser. But already in the autumn, significant changes were again made to the long-suffering project: the ship’s displacement needed to be increased immediately by 10 thousand tons.As a result, the current value of this indicator is 67 thousand tons. Among other things, the designers found it necessary to add the following innovations to the sketches:
- On board the ship it was necessary to install the ASM "Granit".
- The need to increase the aviation group at once to 50 units.
- The most important thing was that the planes needed to be launched without the use of a catapult, using a simple springboard method. This not only reduced the cost of construction, but also significantly extended the technical resource of the cruiser.
The final model of the aircraft carrier "Admiral Kuznetsov" was ready only in 1982.Laid it in September of the same year at the Nikolaev shipyards, initially assigning the name "Riga" and the number (according to the factory catalog) 105. Just two months later, the ship was renamed, after which it turns into "Leonid Brezhnev". Already in December, the installation of the first structural unit was in full swing. In general, it was the first cruiser in the history of Soviet shipbuilding, which consisted entirely of blocks (24 pieces).
The length of each was about 32 meters, the height was 13 meters. The weight of each element sometimes reached 1.7 thousand tons. By the way, all the add-ons of the huge ship are also made according to the block scheme. But not only this is unique "Admiral Kuznetsov." The aircraft carrier, the characteristics of which we describe in this article, during normal operation of the supplying plants could be built in three to four years, which is an absolute record for ships of this class.
Alas, the unhurried work of the plants several times slowed down its entry into the Soviet Navy.
Installation of onboard systems
The order of all power and power installations was made for 1983-1984. The factories failed: they were very far from the schedule, as a result, for the installation of engines and turbines, they had to partially disassemble the hull and remove the upper deck in some sections.The French spy satellite first captured the ship in 1984. At that time, his readiness was already at least 20%.
The cruiser was lowered from the stocks at the end of 1985. The weight of the hull and the systems installed at that time did not exceed 32 thousand tons. Experts evaluated the readiness of the aircraft carrier at 38.5%.
The following year, the changes again affected the "Admiral Kuznetsov" (aircraft carrier). The designer of the project 1143.5 has changed, it was P. Sokolov. By the middle of 1987, the ship was renamed for the third time. This time it is TAKR "Tbilisi". Willingness was close to 57%. By that time, the cruiser could have been completed by approximately 71%, but due to equipment suppliers, the project was repeatedly rudely blocked. Only by the end of 1989, readiness began to reach 70%.
The cost of the ship in those years was estimated at 720 million rubles, and the increase in the cost of 200 million was due just to the delay in suppliers. In response, the chief designer was again changed, this time L. Belov. The ship was approximately 80% complete. By that time, more than half of all electronic equipment was installed on the ship, and most of them could only be delivered by 1989 (and the delivery was scheduled for 1984).
First out to sea
The first access to the sea dates back to October 20, 1989. It was officially approved and approved by all project participants. In principle, by that time the ship was finally completely ready, but the aviation group had not yet been delivered. The trip lasted a little longer than one month. When was the first landing on the aircraft carrier "Admiral Kuznetsov"? It happened on the first of November 1989. The Su-27K was the first to be tested. Immediately after its landing, the MiG-29 K left the deck, with which there were no problems either.
All weapons and radio systems were installed only in 1990. But still the cruiser’s readiness reaches 87%. In the spring and summer of the same year, ship trials began to be carried out. Finally, in October of the same year, the ship acquires its final name. Now it is the same aircraft carrier of Russia "Admiral Kuznetsov".
During the first stage of testing alone, the cruiser overcame more than 16,000 nautical miles under its own power, and airplanes took off almost 500 times from its deck. Not a single landing on the Admiral Kuznetsov aircraft carrier ended in a state of emergency, which, for the first time tested vessels, is simply a great indicator!
The first tests were completed in the late 1990s. Up to 1992, the final stage of the State acceptance (as part of the Black Sea Fleet) passed, after which the aircraft carrier Admiral Kuznetsov was incorporated into the Northern Fleet.
Basic ship design information
As we already said, the ship consists of exactly 24 blocks, each of which weighs about 1.5 thousand tons. The hull was made by welding, it has seven decks and two huge platforms at once. To lift parts of this size and weight, Soviet engineers had to use Finnish “Kane” cranes, each of which could lift to the required height up to 900 tons. The peculiarity of the ship is also that its entire body is covered with a special coating, which effectively absorbs the signal of enemy radars.
By the way, about the recent modernization, which the aircraft carrier Admiral Kuznetsov passed. The latest news suggests that this composition has been significantly improved, so the ability of the huge ship to literally “dissolve” in the open sea has become even more impressive.
If (quite conditionally) to divide the ship into the average floors of a residential building, then their number will be equal to 27.In general, inside the cruiser there are at once 3857 rooms that perform a variety of functions. It is worth noting that only the cabins (which are divided into four classes) here are 387 pieces, 134 sailors' cabins, six huge canteens, fifty perfectly equipped shower rooms for personnel. Thus, the Russian aircraft carrier "Admiral Kuznetsov" is the most real floating city! Its autonomy is one and a half months.
It may seem that this is not enough. But this is until you know the number of crew and flight personnel. Personnel on board - more than 1.5 thousand people. Pilots - 626 people. Just imagine the complexity of providing food and drink to more than two thousand people for a month and a half on the high seas! So the aircraft carrier Admiral Kuznetsov, the dimensions of which can really hit the imagination, is indeed monumental.
In total, during the construction of the ship, the engineers used more than four thousand (!) Kilometers of cable, 12 thousand kilometers of pipes for the circulation of liquids for various purposes. The through deck area is 14,000 m². It ends with a springboard, the slope of which is equal to 14.3 degrees in its steepest part.Springboard at the highest point at 28 meters rises above the water. Maximum movement speed - 32 knots. In economy mode, the ship accelerates to 16 knots.
Deck and runways
Special fairings are installed on the edges of the deck and the very nasal springboard. Aircraft on the landing deck of the cruiser are delivered with the help of lifts, with a loading capacity of 40 tons each. Delivery of aircraft units is made to the stern and on the bow. The width of the deck is 67 meters. The total length of the aircraft carrier "Admiral Kuznetsov" is 304.5 meters.
The depth of the draft of the giant cruiser is 10.5 meters.
Directly for landing, a section of the deck is 250 meters long and 26 meters wide. It is located with a slope of seven degrees. To cover this area, scientists at one time developed a special composition "Omega", which prevents slipping and protects the material of the deck from extremely high temperatures. For sites from which take-off and landing of “vertical” Yak-41, produced heat-resistant plates AK-9FM.
The total number of launch lanes is two, and they converge at the highest point of the springboard, which generally distinguishes the aircraft carrier Admiral Kuznetsov from other ships of a similar class.The star, located on its stem, emphasizes the majestic and formidable features of a huge cruiser.
On the left side is a spare runway, the length of which is already 180 meters. To protect the staff, deflectors are mounted all over the deck, equipped with powerful cooling systems. In order to ensure the safe landing of flight units, the Svetlana-2 aero-finders are used. In case of emergency there is an installation (emergency barrier) with the "speaking" name "Hope". The landing of the aircraft is the responsibility of the telemetry and control system Luna-3.
For storage of most of the air group is a special protective hangar with a length of 153 meters and a width of 26 meters. The height of this office space is 7.2 meters. In the hangar is located approximately 70% of all flight units of the ship. In addition, it also houses fire trucks and emergency tractors. Airplanes from the hangar are displayed in semi-automatic mode, while on the deck they are driven by tractors. The entire hangar is divided by four special "curtains", which are mounted in order to improve fire safety.
To increase the ship's “vitality”, its internal partitions are made according to the sandwich scheme - with alternating layers of steel and fiberglass.The yield strength of the metal used for the construction of partitions is 60 kgf / mm². All tankers of tankers, premises and vehicles for the supply of ammunition are protected by a layer of armor.
Kuznetsov is also unique in that it (for the first time in the history of domestic shipbuilding) uses underwater combined protection. Its depth is about five meters. The ship can withstand the flooding of five adjacent compartments at once, the total length of which is approximately 60 meters.
"Reports from the fronts"
By the way, where is the famous aircraft carrier Admiral Kuznetsov now? The news reports that the ship and its crew are currently in Severomorsk, returning from a long training trip around the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean. In its course airplanes and helicopters of the deck managers repeatedly practiced methods of air combat and preventive interception of targets.
That's where the aircraft carrier Admiral Kuznetsov is now. It should be noted that at any time he can withdraw from the parking lot and once again go on a long hike.