Academic rowing: types, technology, competition. Olympic champions in rowing
Academic rowing is a cyclical sport in which almost all muscle groups are involved. In contrast to canoeing or kayaking in this type of rowing, athletes move forward with their backs. The most widespread this sport has received in Western Europe, America, Australia, Russia, New Zealand and Romania. Since 1896, men's rowing competitions have been part of the Olympics program. In women, the opportunity to compete in rowing at the Olympic Games appeared only in 1976. In addition, the World Cup and the World Cup, as well as the Nations Cup, are held annually in rowing. There is also a World Cup and Cup for boys and students. This is a brief description of academic rowing, now let's take a closer look at it!
There is no perfect rowing technique, as each athlete has his own technique and understanding of the process. From this it follows that the main task of a rowing coach is the adaptation of an individual technique of an athlete to certain conditions. The main element of the rowing process is the stroke itself. It consists of two stages: start / hold / hold and end. The cleanliness of execution at both stages affects the speed, balance and trajectory of the boat. By the way, depending on the direction of the stroke, the boat can move both horizontally and vertically.
With the increase in the number of rowers in the boat, the influence of the quality of the paddle on the course of the boat increases. Ideally, all athletes should simultaneously start and finish the fungus. In fact, even with the best teams in the world, rowers do not work simultaneously. Sometimes the difference reaches tenths and even hundredths of a second, but it still exists.
Types of rowing
Rowing is steam and swing. In the first case, the athlete works with two oars, each of which he holds with one hand. And in the second - rowing occurs with one paddle, which is held with two hands.
The crew of the boat may include one, two, four or eight rowers. In some classes the weight of the athlete is regulated. To compete in such discipline as rowing academic, can men and women.
The Olympic program includes such classes of rowing:
- Two pair, double oar and two lightweight steam room.
- Four swing and steam room.
This is only the Olympic rowing. Competitions at world championships are more diverse:
- Loner low weight.
- Two men oar with the helmsman, two men oar lightweight.
- Four men oar with the steering, four lightweight steam room.
- Eight men's light weight.
In all classes where the gender of the athletes was not indicated, both men and women can compete.
The weight of the steering is governed by the rules. If the helmsman weighs less than the norm, then the boat is loaded with ballast. The sex of the helmsman does not depend on the gender of the other crew members. Thus, in the female crew can be a steering man and vice versa. The Olympic Games are an exception - here the whole team must be of the same sex.In commercial tournaments, it is sometimes allowed for both women and men to be in the crew.
In this sport there is a clear distinction between rowing and rowing oars. Athletes who work with swinging oars, are raking and tank. The first ones hold the paddle on the left side, and the second ones - on the right side. As calculations show, for smooth progress of the boat, the crew crews should apply 5% more effort than tank ones. In a team of four or eight athletes, the strongest of them sit closer to the nose.
Academic rowing is quite different from paddling in a canoe and canoe. The differences relate to both the method of movement and the level of loads received by the athlete. About 95% of human muscle groups are involved in this sport. Here are the main differences from kayaking and canoeing:
- Distance. It can vary from 0.5 to 160 kilometers. It all depends on the nature of the race. Juniors "B" (up to 16 years old) swim at 0.5-1 km. Juniors "A" (from 16 to 18 years old) - 1-2 km. All others are considered a standard 2-kilometer race. A distance of more than 2 kilometers belong to the marathon.
- Way of movement.A characteristic feature of rowing is the movement of athletes back to front.Buoys help the athletes to keep the set trajectory.
- Movement speedThe average speed for a boat in rowing is about 20 km / h. In spurts (start and finish), it increases to 30 km / h. This is the last indicator, which is different rowing. Eights, by the way, the fastest, both in jerks and in the middle of the distance.
A boat for rowing is a light, narrow, elongated vessel that has movable seats and swivels carried overboard for attaching oars. Boats can be training and racing. In the first case, the vessel is slightly wider, and its sides are higher. Initially, boats were made exclusively of wood. Based on the method of plating, the division of ships into “Clinkers” and “Scythians” appeared. The boat "Clinker" was trimmed with longitudinal slats, and the "Skiff" - veneer or plywood, made of valuable wood. Later, composite materials replaced the plywood and veneer. Today, the "clinker" covering of the boats has gone into oblivion, so all racing boats have become simply called "Scythians". Manufacture boats from carbon materials on the principle of multi-layered "sandwich" began in 1980.High-quality epoxy resins are used as a link in this technology. Modern boats are quite expensive. The price of a single vessel starts from about a thousand dollars.
Paddles used in rowing are made on the basis of epoxy curing. They have high elastic-strength characteristics, operational stability and low weight. Paddle blade consists of three layers and is produced by the method of "direct" pressing. And the core, which has an oval cross-section, is made by winding followed by curing.
Official rules impose the following requirements on inventory:
- Boats with fixed oarlocks are not allowed to compete.
- The step should be carried out in such a way that, when turning the boat over, it does not prevent the rower from getting out of the boat as soon as possible without the help of hands.
- On the bow of the boat should stand holder for flyugarki and a white rubber ball.
- The minimum weight of the boat without radio systems and oars: single - 14 kg; two steering - 32 kg; two steam room, bezruulnaya - 27 kg; four steering - 51 kg; four wheelless - 50 kg; Fourth steam room - 52 kg; eight - 96 kg.
- The blades of swing oars must be at least 5 millimeters thick.Along the edges, the thickness decreases, starting from a distance of 3 mm from the edge. Blades of swing oars should have a thickness of 3 mm, starting from 2 mm from the edge.
In the West, rowing has long traditions that are rigorously supported by athletes and even with a certain excitement. The main ones are:
- From the beginning of XIX in London on the River Thames a classic Royal Regatta has been held, in which the crews of Oxford and Cambridge compete.
- The most common distance for the swim, if you do not take into account the children's and youth competitions - 2 km. The exceptions are a few British classic races.
- Before the starting signal boats keep stewards. No technique at the start is used.
- If the team is victorious in the swim, the helmsman is thrown into the water. If there is no helmsman in the team, then all the crew members jump into the pond, holding hands.
Almost any sport can boast of specific terms and jargon. Rowing is no exception. Consider some of them.
Bank. This is the name of the mobile seat. It is made of wood or plastic and rides on 4 wheels on special rails.Thanks to the mobility of the seat, the athlete can help himself with his feet.
Step. It is a pair of shoes, mounted on a metal plate. Plays the role of support during the push. In a swim without a helmsman, one of the rowers has a right-hand shoe connected to the steering gear to adjust the direction of movement.
Poloski. These are the rails on which the bank moves.
Retract / bracket.Metal tubes, which are attached to each other in the form of a cone and installed on the sides of the boat (in pair vessels - left and right, in swing - on the left or right). Play the role of support for the paddle.
Bulwark. The plate, fixed along the top of the bead, perpendicular to it. Protects the crew from splashing.
Visor. It is installed behind the back of the first number and protects the crew from water.
Swivel.It is used to attach the paddle to the end of the bracket.
Spout. Rubber ball mounted on the bow of the boat. Warns inventory damage in the event of a collision of a vessel with something.
Heel. Plastic part that limits the length of the paddle.
Surprisingly, but the youngest champion in rowing became a 10-year-old boy who got into the crew by accident. He was taken to the team instead of the ill steering. It happened in 1990.
The most outstanding rower was the Englishman Steve Redgrave. He won all competitions, including the Olympics, for 20 years. Before the fifth Olympiad in 1992, doctors found diabetes in Steve. He did not give up and once again became a champion, after which he left the sport. All Olympic champions in rowing dream of repeating the achievement of Steve. By the way, there were 18 such in the USSR. In Russia, there are only four Olympic champions so far: Igor Kravtsov, Nikolay Spinev, Alexey Svirin and Sergey Fedorovtsev.
International Rowing Federation
The international federation organizes and conducts competitions at various levels. In addition, she is working on expanding the geography of competitions, improving the rules, improving the methodology of training and other areas of development of the sport.